BCG vaccine to prevent tuberculosis
BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) known as a vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). In BCG . vaccine contains a form of the bacteria that causes tuberculosis. However, this bacterium has been weakened so it is not capable of causing disease and has a protective effect against TB disease.
BCG . Vaccine Commonly recommended for infants and young children, it is particularly effective in preventing dangerous forms of TB, including meningitis, with up to 70% protection. Adults who do not have TB and have not been previously immunized but are regularly exposed to the exposure factors should also be vaccinated. Besides, BCG It is also very effective in preventing infection with Buruli ulcer and other atypical tuberculosis bacteria. However, this TB vaccine requires only a single dose of vaccination, without the need for additional doses.
- BCG . Vaccine is indicated for children within 30 days after birth and as soon as possible.
- BCG . Vaccine Just a single dose, no need for a booster.
- Most children have a reaction at the injection site, usually right after BCG injection, a small nodule will appear at the injection site and disappear after about 30 minutes. After about 2 weeks, a red sore the size of a pencil will appear. After 2 weeks, the ulcer healed on its own, creating a small scar 5mm in diameter.
- Possible reactions such as abscess, axillary lymphadenopathy are often caused by the use of non-sterile syringes, excessive injection or improper injection technique.
- Severe reactions to injections BCG It is very rare, only 1 in 1.000.000 people become infected with TB after BCG injection, or occurs in cases of HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency.
Hepatitis B vaccine
Vaccination against hepatitis B for children for 24 hours for the purpose of preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus. The injection hepatitis B vaccine The sooner the baby is started, the more effective it is. The effectiveness of disease prevention will gradually decrease from 50 to 57% day by day and will not be achieved if the injection is given after 7 days.
Unlike the vaccine against tuberculosis, polio, hepatitis B vaccine noses 2, 3, 4 are to prevent future exposure; injection hepatitis B vaccine 1st dose as soon as possible is aimed at protecting infants who have been exposed to the virus at birth, this is a race between viral replication and a vaccine that produces antibodies in time to capture the virus present in the virus. body, so more water was injected within 12 hours.
Hepatitis B vaccination schedule for infants
- All newborns should be vaccinated 1 Hepatitis B vaccine shot immediately after birth, preferably 24 hours after birth. Note, only monovalent hepatitis vaccine is used for neonatal dose and can be vaccinated with BCG tuberculosis vaccine but will be injected at two different sites.
- Particularly for infants whose mothers are infected with hepatitis B virus, in addition to 1 dose of hepatitis B vaccine like other children, the baby needs to receive 1 dose of antibody (anti-hepatitis B serum) HBIg (Hepatitis B) Immune Globulin) within the first 12-24 hours after birth. Children whose mothers have hepatitis B will be vaccinated according to the 0-1-2-12 regimen, meaning the first dose at the delivery room, the second dose at 2 month of age, the third dose at 1 months of age, and the second dose at 3 months of age. again at 2 months old. The purpose of this vaccination is hepatitis B immune globulin for passive immunity and a dose of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine for active immunity. The site of injection of HBIg antibodies should be at different hepatitis B vaccination sites. When children are 12-15 months old, they need to be tested for HBsAg and Anti-HBs again to make sure that the baby is protected and not infected with hepatitis B virus from the mother.
Rotavirus It is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. Rota virus has 4 types: A, B, C, D in which type A is the most common type. Rota virus is transmitted through the mouth – anus, when entering the digestive tract it destroys the cells of the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis. Mild fever, vomiting, watery diarrhea. Children usually incubate 2 days before, then begin with vomiting and diarrhea for about 4-8 days. Dehydration, loss of electrolytes is the main cause of death for children if not treated promptly.
The introduction of Rotavirus vaccine is an effective measure to prevent gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Immunity acquired or acquired Rotavirus vaccine It will help the body build lifelong immunity. There is still a proportion of children who get sick after having immunity to a less severe degree.
- Rotarix vaccine (Belgium): 2 doses; The first dose is given at 6 weeks of age and 4 weeks after the next dose. Rotavirus vaccine should be given to infants before 24 weeks of age.
- Rotateq vaccine (USA): 3 doses; the first dose is between 7-12 weeks of age, the other two doses are spaced one month apart, and the third dose must be finished by 3 weeks.
Influenza is a potentially serious illness that requires hospitalization and sometimes death. Every flu season is different, and each person’s flu infection will develop differently, but every year millions of people get the flu, hundreds of thousands of patients are hospitalized for treatment, and there are thousands to tens of thousands of patients. Thousands of flu-related deaths. Use flu vaccine year is the most effective way to prevent this disease.
Use flu vaccine It has been shown to be effective and has many benefits, including reducing the risk of influenza, reducing hospitalizations and even reducing influenza-related mortality in children. Vaccines – flu vaccine stimulates the body to produce an immune response, produces antibodies, and a full immune response is obtained after about 2 weeks of use. The antibodies produced will help protect the body against the invasion of the virus used to make the vaccine.
Vaccine – seasonal flu vaccine formulated to fight the most common flu viruses that flu season (based on previous research findings). Most flu vaccines on the market in the United States are of the quadrivalent vaccine category, which means they can protect against four different flu viruses, including influenza A virus H1N1, influenza A virus H3N2, and influenza A virus. 2 types of influenza B virus. In addition to the quadrivalent vaccine, there is also a trivalent vaccine, which protects against three influenza viruses including influenza A virus H1N1, influenza A virus H3N2 and one influenza B virus.
The annual flu vaccine is essential, because the flu virus is always changing, and the body’s immune response gradually declines after a year. For the best protection against the flu, everyone 6 months of age and older should not forget to get vaccinated every year.
The specific dose and schedule for influenza vaccination in children and adults are as follows:
- Children from 6 to 35 months old: 0,25ml dose.
- Adults and children 36 months of age and older: 0,5 ml injection.
- Children under 9 years of age who have not had the flu before or have never received a flu vaccine should get 2 doses. The 2nd dose is at least 1 month apart from the 1st. And then a booster shot once a year.
Flu shot should be given once a year due to the average duration of immunity one year. In addition, the viruses that cause influenza also change every year, and the composition of the flu vaccine is regularly adjusted to match the strains of the virus that appear from time to time.
Measles – Mumps – Rubella vaccine can create active immunity against measles, mumps and rubella with a high prevention rate of up to 95% and a small number of injections.
- Measles: Measles is caused by the measles virus, the disease is spread through the respiratory tract, nasal secretions, and saliva of carriers, especially those who do not have specific immunity. Measles is dangerous because it can cause otitis media, laryngitis, bronchopneumonia, meningitis, … When sick, the patient will have a fever, a rash at first on the face and then spread to the whole body. body, may be accompanied by runny nose, cough and red, watery eyes.
- Mumps: The disease is caused by the mumps virus, the disease is mainly transmitted through the respiratory tract, which can cause epidemics in the community. The most common clinical presentation of mumps is inflammation of the parotid parotid gland, accompanied by fever, swelling, and pain in the mandibular lymph nodes. The worrying complication of the disease is that 20-35% of men after puberty get mumps with inflammation of the testicles and epididymis – if not detected and treated promptly, it can easily cause male infertility. .
- Rubella disease: A disease caused by the rubella virus, the disease has symptoms similar to measles but is usually milder. However, for pregnant women, the disease is especially dangerous because it can cause severe defects in the fetus such as cataracts, deafness, congenital heart defects, mental retardation, etc. may cause the fetus to stop growing.
Measles, mumps, and Rubella are all dangerous infectious diseases that spread through the respiratory tract, which can lead to serious complications, especially for babies and pregnant women, so everyone Effective methods of prevention are needed.
There are many vaccines available to prevent measles, mumps and rubella, of which the combination vaccine (3 in 1 vaccine) Measles – Mumps – Rubella trusted by many people because it helps to reduce the number of injections to only 1 time. DRAWMeasles – Mumps – Rubella vaccine is prepared from live, attenuated Wistar RA 27/3 strain measles virus, L-Zagreb mumps virus (LZ) and Wistar RA 840/1994 strain. Measles and rubella viruses are cultured on human diploid cells (HDCs), and mumps virus is cultured on fibroblasts from SPF clean chicken eggs. The vaccine is lyophilized and accompanied by a rehydration solution. The vaccine met WHO standards when tested using the methods according to WHO TRS XNUMX (XNUMX) guidelines.
When is the Measles – Mumps – Rubella vaccine given?
Measles – Mumps – Rubella Vaccine When to inject is a question many people care about. Accordingly, the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine regimen to prevent measles, mumps, and rubella is different between ages. As follows:
For children from 12 months to 7 years old:
- The 1st shot is the first injection.
- 2nd dose when the child is 4-6 years old or earlier if an epidemic occurs. The 2nd dose is at least 1 month apart from the 1st.
Pneumococcal vaccine Synflorix
Synflorix pneumococcal vaccine is a pneumococcal vaccine containing the 10 most common antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria including 1, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F. The vaccine will stimulate the body’s immune response to produce antibodies against the above types of pneumococcus, so when the pneumococcus enters the body, it will be protected by the antibodies produced by the vaccine, not causing any damage. disease for the body.
When the body is exposed to foreign organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, the immune system creates antibodies against them. Antibodies help the body recognize and destroy foreign organisms. They then remain in the body to help protect against infections caused by the foreign organism itself. This is called active immunity. The body’s immune system makes different antibodies for each foreign organism it encounters. Therefore, vaccine-induced immunity is specific, active immunity, when vaccinated against any disease, the body will produce antibodies against the bacteria and viruses that cause that disease.
Synflorix contains 10 common pathogenic serotypes of pneumococcus. The vaccine will stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria when the bacteria actually enter the body, thereby protecting the body from pneumonia, meningitis, ear infections. In between, sepsis caused by these types of pneumococci. Synflorix vaccine Pneumococcal room is used for babies from 6 weeks to 5 years old. The injection regimen depends on the age at which the child begins the first dose of Synflorix. However, vaccination as early in the age is recommended as possible because it will help the child’s body to form antibodies to protect the body when pneumococcal enters the body. Synflorix vaccine The vaccine is administered intramuscularly and the appropriate site is the anterolateral aspect of the thigh in young children or the brachial deltoid muscle in older children.
Synflorix pneumococcal vaccine schedule
For infants from 6 weeks to 6 months of age: This age group can use 2 vaccination courses.
- 3 + 1 course: This is the recommended course for optimal results. The first dose can be started at 6 weeks of age. The second dose is at least 1 month apart from the first dose. And the third dose at least 2 month after the 1nd dose. A booster dose is given at least 6 months after the third dose. For premature babies (at least over 27 weeks gestation) can use the 3 + 1 regimen when the baby is 2 months old.
- 2 + 1 course: Used to replace the 3 + 1 course, the first dose can be used for children 6 weeks old. The second dose is at least 2 months apart from the first dose. And the second dose should be repeated at least 6 months after the second dose.
Synflorix vaccine usually safe. However, some common side effects may still occur after the injection. Side effects of injections Synflorix vaccine common such as loss of appetite, pain, swelling and redness at the injection site; There may be stiffness at the injection site and fever. Side effects are usually transient and go away in 1-2 days. For very rare manifestations such as unusual irritability, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, hematoma at the injection site, high fever ≥ 390 C, unrelieved by antipyretic drugs or other signs (erythema on the skin) , rapid breathing, difficulty breathing, cyanosis, poor feeding, aborting, convulsions, lethargy, etc.), parents need to take the child to the nearest medical center for timely intervention.
5-in-1 vaccine or 6-in-1 vaccine
5-in-1 vaccine or 6-in-1 vaccine All have the purpose of preventing dangerous diseases, the difference is the number of diseases and the type of disease that can be prevented by each vaccine.
The purpose of the combined vaccine is to prevent 6 of the most dangerous diseases in children: Diphtheria. Whooping cough. Tetanus. Hepatitis B. Polio. Pneumonia and meningitis caused by Hib bacteria. These diseases are not only susceptible to children in the first months of life, but they also have extremely severe consequences later in life, high mortality rates, or motor and neuropsychiatric sequelae. Since the kind 5-in-1 and 6-in-1 vaccines The introduction of childhood immunization has reduced the number of deaths caused by these diseases by hundreds to thousands of times.
- Latest ComBE Five 5-in-1 vaccine: prevent the above diseases except polio. Therefore, when giving children this vaccine, it is necessary to give them additional polio vaccine.
- Pentaxim 5-in-1 vaccine: helps to prevent the above diseases except hepatitis B. Therefore, when giving Pentaxim vaccine to children, it is necessary to add hepatitis B vaccine.
- Infanrix Hexa 6 1-in-XNUMX vaccine: help children fully prevent all 6 dangerous diseases mentioned above.
- Hexaxim 6-in-1 vaccine: also helps children prevent all 6 diseases above.
Everything you need to know about the ComBE Five 5-in-1 vaccine
- ComBE Five vaccine is manufactured by Biological E – India. This is a new vaccine with the same composition as Quinvaxem vaccine, including: antitoxin from diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B virus surface antigen and antigen. Hib shell (causes meningitis or pneumonia).
- There have been over 400 million doses so far ComBE Five . vaccine Used in 43 countries around the world. In Vietnam, this vaccine has been licensed for circulation by the Ministry of Health since May 05 to replace the previous Quinvaxem vaccine. ComBE Five . vaccine Officially used in the expanded immunization program for Vietnamese children since December 12. Currently, Vietnam is being provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund ComBE Five vaccine. Before being put into use, the vaccine was tested for safety and met the requirements of the Ministry of Health. However, according to the World Health Organization, no vaccine is absolutely safe. ComBE Five . vaccination can range from mild, moderate to severe. The reaction may be systemic or occur only at the injection site.
What to know about Pentaxim, Infanrix Hexa and Hexaxim service vaccines
- In addition to the 5-in-1 ComBE Five vaccine used in the expanded immunization program (free of charge for children under 1 year old nationwide), in some localities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City there is a vaccine. The other 5-in-1 vaccines are Pentaxim vaccine originating from France and two 6-in-1 vaccines being Infanrix Hexa vaccine originating from Belgium and Hexaxim vaccine originating from France. All three vaccines are not part of the expanded immunization program, but are used in service immunization.
- The main difference between the service-injected vaccine and the free-to-use vaccine is in the pertussis prevention component. While the Indian vaccine ComBE Five has a whole-cell pertussis component, the Belgian and French vaccines are acellular. Acellular means that there is no pertussis carcass component in the vaccine, but instead a specific antigenic component, so it will be more pure. In fact, the service vaccines imported from Europe, with refined ingredients, are 10 times safer than the vaccines used in the expanded immunization program that we are applying. Thereby reducing unwanted side effects after injection.
- The ComBE Five vaccine contains purified dead pertussis bacteria and reactions usually caused by the protein in the dead bacteria, including: fever, redness, swelling at the injection site, which usually clears up on their own in 1-2 days. In more severe cases, anaphylaxis may occur. The 6-in-1 service vaccine, in addition to immunizing 5 important diseases at the same time as the 5-in-1 vaccine, also prevents the 6th disease, which is polio. A special feature of the 6-in-1 vaccine is that the pertussis component in the vaccine is acellular type, so it is safer and has fewer side effects than the vaccine with the whole-cell pertussis component. At the same time, the 6-in-1 vaccine reduces the number of shots needed from 9 to 3, while still protecting young children from preventable diseases.
Schedule of vaccinations
All 5-in-1 and 6-in-1 vaccines require 03 basic injections at least 28 days apart, the first dose given when the child is 2 months old. The child should then be given a 4th booster dose at 18 months of age or more than 6 months from the date of the 3rd dose. However, the schedule may vary depending on the actual situation, possibly a little slower. if the child is sick, the vaccine is out, … but it should not be too late, because the child is at risk of getting sick before receiving the full dose.
At the same time, the 5-in-1 and 6-in-1 vaccines should not be given too early, especially before the child is 2 months old or before the doctor’s appointment. Because if you do, the vaccine will lose its effectiveness and have to be re-injected
Vaccine against Japanese encephalitis
Japanese encephalitis is an acute infectious disease. Infection is caused by mosquitoes that feed on the blood of wild birds and livestock containing the meningitis virus, then bite humans and transmit the virus to humans. Common symptoms in patients are high fever, forehead headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, etc Japanese encephalitis meningeal syndrome and mild cognitive impairment. In the full-blown period, the signs of brain damage are more severe, the patients have delirium, hallucinations, agitation, and increased muscle tone. The patient falls into a deep coma and is at risk of death. If the patient passes the full-blown period, the patient enters the remission phase, the focal neurological damage will be evident. Patients may have sequelae such as limb paralysis, cranial nerve palsies or movement disorders and other sequelae such as aphasia, memory impairment, mental disorders, etc. According to statistics, the mortality rate from Japanese encephalitis is 25 – 30%. In addition, 50% of patients have lifelong neurological sequelae. The disease can affect anyone, but children under the age of 15 have the highest risk of contracting the disease and experiencing the most dangerous complications.
Japanese encephalitis It is a dangerous disease with a high mortality rate and easily causes many neurological sequelae. Japanese encephalitis vaccine is the best preventive measure. Therefore, parents should give children Japanese encephalitis vaccine expanded vaccination under the programs of the Ministry of Health.
2 types of Japanese encephalitis vaccine is JEVAX produced by the No. 1 Vaccine and Biological Products Company Limited, Vietnam and IMOJEV manufactured in Thailand by Sanofi (France) company to serve vaccination for customers in need.
- Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine JEVAX
JEVAX Japanese encephalitis vaccine is produced according to the technological process of BIKEN Institute – Osaka University, Japan at the No. 1 Vaccine and Biological Products Company Limited, Vietnam. This is a vaccine used to specifically prevent Japanese encephalitis. JEVAX vaccine is a clear, colorless solution containing: Pure, inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Virus
- 1st dose: First injection (at 12 months of age onwards).
- Nose 2: After 1st dose, about 1-2 weeks.
- Step 3: One year after the 1st shot.
- Revaccination: After 3 years, a booster dose to maintain immunity or people with good immune status, repeat vaccination before encephalitis epidemic occurs.
Japanese encephalitis vaccine IMOJEV is a live recombinant, attenuated vaccine in lyophilized and reconstituted dosage forms, indicated for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis in adults and children 9 months of age and older. Vaccine IMOJEV has been circulated and used in Vietnam since 2019, with positive effects in the prevention of Japanese encephalitis. French Imojev Japanese encephalitis vaccine
Indications: Imojev is a vaccine indicated for the prevention of Japanese Encephalitis in adults and children 9 months of age and older.
- Children from 9 months to under 18 years old (who have never had Jevax vaccine):
- Injection 1: The first injection.
- 2nd dose: 1 year after the first dose.
Chickenpox is a benign disease but can also cause many dangerous complications, especially for children and pregnant women. Complications of the disease can cause dermatitis due to bacterial superinfection, pus-filled chickenpox nodules, after healing, can leave scars, which are difficult to recover. In cases of severe malnutrition, the chickenpox nodules can cause extremely dangerous necrosis. In addition, chickenpox can also cause otitis (outer ear, middle ear), laryngitis, pneumonia, acute nephritis (hematuria), in severe cases can cause encephalitis – meningoencephalitis. dangerous health, the patient can die if left late and not timely emergency. For pregnant women in the first 3 months of pregnancy and about to give birth, chickenpox during pregnancy can be passed from mother to fetus, putting the baby at risk of congenital chickenpox syndrome, creating scars. subcutaneous, microcephaly, cataracts, growth retardation, low birth weight, short limbs.
Children and pregnant women are subjects whose immune systems work less than usual, so the risk of infection increases. In addition, pregnant women and children are prone to dangerous complications, which can be fatal chickenpox vaccine for children as well as pregnant women prevention is the best way to protect children and women during pregnancy.
Chickenpox vaccine will maximize the effect when given to children from 12 months of age and adults who have never had this disease. The schedule for chickenpox vaccination for each specific object is as follows:
- For children aged 12 months to 12 years: Give 2 doses of chickenpox vaccine at least 3 months apart.
- Particularly for children under 4 years old, the recommended vaccination schedule includes: 1st dose at 12 months old and 2nd dose at 4-6 years old.
- For children 13 years and older and adults: Give 2 doses of chickenpox vaccine, in which the 2nd dose will be 1-4 weeks apart from the 8st dose.