Compressed air stencil
In the nineteenth century, it took a lot of time and effort to get copies of contracts and documents. Therefore, Edison thought to create a device with a small electric motor that helps in creating printed templates. Edison invented the forerunner of the tattoo gun – the stencil. Edison patented this machine in 1876. It used a tilted stick with a steel needle to pierce paper for printing. Most importantly, it was one of the first effective devices used to copy documents.
A company acquired this invention and mass-produced these “pens”. However, when sold in the market, this product is much complained about because of its heaviness and loud noise. Not only that, the cost of replacing the battery is quite expensive. Although he tried to improve, but after each revision, the pen got worse and worse, so he gave up, gave up this annoying invention and moved on to another job. However, this product abandoned by Edison was the premise for tattoo artist Samuel O’Reilly to create the first tattoo machine in 1891. Samuel was awarded a patent from Edison’s own electric pen.
Vote counting machine
Edison is known as a smart person, always bringing in his creativity to contribute, so when he encounters any inconvenience, he always finds a device to overcome it. It was for that reason, when he arrived in Boston in 1868, he began to work out his inventions. The invention of the electronic ballot counting machine was Edison’s first patent when he was 22 years old.
This widget was invented specifically for legislative bodies and electoral systems, such as the United States Congress. It helps to record their votes in a more timely manner than the old system. It is a device that is directly connected to the individual voting desks. At the desk, on the metal bars divided into 2 columns “yes” and no. Legislators will move the device to indicate “yes” or “no” then the information is sent to a place where the results are summed up. Once the voting is completed, the voter will place a piece of chemical paper on top of the metal and run a metal roller over it. The results will be displayed on paper, the wheel tracks the total number of votes and tabulates the results.
Despite his research efforts, when his product was sent to the National Assembly, it was rejected because the National Assembly did not want a device that took such a long time and process, so this machine was abandoned in oblivion of time.
Every household today uses a device that measures electricity consumption called an electric meter. Edison is considered the father of this device by his invention in 1881 to solve the problem of measuring the amount of electricity used for homes or businesses at that time.
Electrolyte meters use the electrolytic effect of current to measure the total amount of electricity instead of measuring the power supply time in the previous model. This type of electric meter is actually an electrolytic device, connected to the load through a shunt, in the meter there are plugs installed in a liquid solvent that is an electrolyte and zinc plates used to measure electricity. shall be cleaned before use. One plate is used to take the main measurement data and the other plate is used to verify the original condition.
At the beginning of the billing cycle, the zinc plates are cleaned and carefully weighed with a laboratory balance and then inserted into the electrolytic cells. When an electric current is passed through the electrolyte, a zinc coating is deposited on the other plate. At the end of the billing period, weigh the zinc plates again. The difference in zinc weight between two weighings will represent the total amount of electricity passed. This meter is calibrated so that the billing unit will be equivalent to the cubic feet of gas volume.
Later Edison added a mechanical counter to help read the index. This type of electric meter remained in use until the end of the 19th century and was improved into the modern meter used today.
Continuing an electrical invention of Edison was the fuse. A fuse is an element or device that protects an electrical circuit by breaking the circuit. Fuses are used to prevent overload on the line causing fire and explosion.
In English, fuse (fuse) means “self-melting”. The fuse follows the principle of self-melting or bending to separate from the circuit when the current in the circuit spikes. To do this, the resistance of the fuse wire material needs to have the right melting temperature, size and composition. The indispensable component in a fuse is a fuse wire connected in series with the two ends of the wire. conduction in electrical circuits. The fuse installation position is behind the main power source and in front of the parts of the circuit, the electrical network that needs to be protected such as electrical equipment, etc. The remaining components include: the fuse holder, the pins, fuse caps, etc. are changed depending on the type of fuse as well as the aesthetic purpose.
On November 29, 11, he introduced to the public his first invention, the hand-cranked phonograph. His first phonograph recorded sound on tin-coated cylinders for low sound quality, and it destroyed the track when played back so it could only be heard once. By wrapping tin foil around a cylinder, and by having a needle that vibrates with the vibrations of sound, creating grooves of varying depths in the tins, he recorded the song “Mary had a little lamb.” “. And using a needle and vibrating diaphragm, Edison recreated the recording.
Then he invented the cylindrical tube series by making a monolithic cylindrical mold of the original cylinder through electroplating. In 1887, Edison continued to mass produce cylindrical phonographs. This process lasted until 1890 when he used a wax that, when placed in a mold, could shrink when cooled, making it easy to remove. Theoretically, Edison’s cylindrical tubes have a recording/play time of 2 to 4 minutes, recording at 160 rpm. All just enough to record a single track.
Recording and pronunciation is done purely mechanically in the presence of a large, shiny metal trumpet. When recording, the trumpet is responsible for “collecting” the sound to create great pressure for the recording needle to be recorded. In contrast, when pronouncing, one has to use the trumpet in the opposite direction to amplify the sound to an audible level.
It was not until 1913, when the invention of the phonograph prevailed and the cylindrical phonograph was discontinued.
Not only known for his famous inventions in electricity, Thomas Edison also surprised mankind in the field of cinema, laying the foundation for later cinema when he invented the cinema projector and created the first movies. first in 1894.
One afternoon in 1887, Thomas Armat visited Edison and showed the inventor a video projector, which Edison immediately recognized its value. He spent four years innovating projectors and making movie projectors and thus inaugurated a vast industry in the world, dedicated to providing the most affordable entertainment.
Edison patented the Kinetoscope, a large film projector that could only show one viewer. All the inventions of the last century, now we look back, only see how simple it was: the machine made a sequence of images run through a light source to create an animated image. But the Kinetoscope was an important invention. All current cinema equipment is based on its operating principle. The first film in history to be copyrighted in the US, shown by Kinetoscope lasted only 5 seconds. It depicts Fred Ott, an Edison employee, inhaling a pinch of powdered tobacco into his nose and then sneezing.
The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but introduced a basic approach that would become standard for all movie projections before video appeared, by creating the illusion of motion by transmitting a Perforated film carries consecutive images through a light source with a high-speed shutter.
In 1879, Thomas Edison came up with a new idea and invented a lamp with high endurance in a large vacuum, it would burn for hundreds of hours.
In January 1, in his laboratory in Menlo Park, Edison built the first incandescent electric light bulb. The lamp glows when an electric current is passed through a thin platinum filament placed in a vacuum-sealed glass bulb to prevent oxidation. At that time, the lights only burned for a few hours. The first efficient lamp to use a filament was a carbon fiber cloth. At noon on October 1879, 21, Edison’s first model burned for 10 hours. The next day Edison began a new experiment using carbon impregnated cardboard as a filament. Finally, after a lot of tireless research, on December 1879, 45, Edison announced his invention of the incandescent lamp to the public and completely changed the world at that time.
Although historians Robert Friedel and Paul Israel listed 22 inventors of this lamp before Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison, they concluded that Edison’s version of the incandescent lamp was superior to others due to a combination of three factors: factors: more efficient combustion material, higher vacuum in the bulb than other versions and higher resistance.
- Includes incandescent, glass bulb and tail light.
- The bulb is made of heat-resistant glass, resistant to high temperatures, and protects the filament.
- Incandescent filament made of Tungsten, resistant to high temperatures, has the function of converting electrical energy into light energy.
- .The lamp tail (swirl tail and prong tail) is made of copper or zinc coated iron, attached to a glass ball, and has the function of connecting to the electrical network supplying the lamp.
- Emits light continuously (no eye strain).
- Low luminescence efficiency (no power saving).
- Low life (about 1000 hours)
Tasimeter a device for measuring very small temperature changes. It depends on the changes of pressure due to expansion or contraction of the solid. In 1878, other American scientists needed a highly sensitive instrument that could be used to measure the minute temperature of thermal changes emitted by the Sun’s corona during the July 29 solar eclipse, which occurred along Rocky Mountains. To meet those needs, Edison devised a tasimeter that used carbon to measure the infrared radiation emitted by the sun.
The value of the tool lies in its ability to detect small temperature variations. This is done indirectly. The change in temperature causes the expansion or contraction of a copper rod, which changes the resistance of an electrical circuit by changing the pressure it creates when a carbon plug is present in the circuit. During the total solar eclipse of the sun in 1878, it successfully demonstrated the existence of heat in the Sun’s corona. It is also of service in determining the relative expansion of substances due to an increase in temperature.
Functional parts are shown in partial cross section, showing its structure and mode of operation. Substances with measured expansion are shown in A. It is clamped at B, its lower end fitting into a slot in the metal plate, M, which rests on the carbon plug. The latter is in an electrical circuit, which includes a delicate galvanometer. Any change in the length of the rod will change the pressure on the carbon, and change the resistance of the circuit. This causes the deflection of the needle to move in one direction indicating expansion of A, while the opposite movement indicates contraction. To avoid any deflection that may arise due to a change in the amperage of the battery, the tasimeter is inserted into one arm of a conduction bridge.
To determine the exact amount of expansion in decimals of an inch, screw S, seen at the front of the dial, is left on until the previous deflection caused by the temperature change is reproduced. The screw acts a second screw, making the bar up or down, and the exact distance the bar moves is indicated by the hand, N, on the dial. This instrument can also be conveniently used to measure changes in atmospheric humidity. In this case, the metallic copper strip is replaced by a transparent liquid, which changes its volume by absorbing moisture.
While broadcasting his Carbon button microphone, Edison had the idea to create a machine that could record and play back phone messages. That notion led him to imagine he could record not only voice but music and other sounds, by using sound to vibrate a diaphragm and push a pen to make an indentation in a cylinder that covered with wax paper is rotated by hand crank.
In late 1877, he asked a mechanic to build the device, using tin foil instead of wax, and Edison recorded the rhyme. The following year, he patented the design, which included a lighter needle to find groves of trees and transmit the vibrations to a second diaphragm, which reproduces the human voice.