Cervical Women’s bodies are covered by a thin layer of tissue – this tissue is made up of cells. Cervical cancer is caused by cells in the cervix (lower part of the uterus) that begin to grow out of control. These new cells grow rapidly and create a tumor in the cervix. Cervical cancer is a common gynecological disease in women, after breast cancer. The disease leaves many painful consequences such as infertility, if more severe can affect life.
The cause to the illness:
- Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by infection with the papillomavirus (HPV). There are many types of HPV, including several high-risk viruses that cause diseases such as anal cancer, cervical cancer, vulvar and penile cancer, and head and neck cancer. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.
- Having sex too early, giving birth before the age of 17.
- People with weak immune systems and genetic factors.
- Cervical cancer usually develops insidiously over a long period of time (taking a few years). During this time, the cells of the cervix will change abnormally due to a change in the vaginal environment or infection with the HPV virus.
- The deformation of these cells that occurs before cancer appears is called dysplasia or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
- The first sign of cervical cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding, such as bleeding between periods, longer than normal periods, bleeding after or during relationship.
- Signs of developing cancer may include pelvic pain, abnormal urination, and leg swelling. If the cancer has spread to nearby organs or lymph nodes, tumors can affect the way those organs work, for example the tumor is pressing on the bladder or blocking a vein.
- Vaccination against HPV, to date, this is still the most effective way, helping to prevent 99% of the risk of disease.
- Healthy eating.
- Don’t have sex too soon, practice good family planning.
- Keep the intimate area clean, especially during menstruation and during sex.
Lung cancer Cancer is the most common cancer affecting both men and women, especially in today’s process of industrialization and modernization. The most common, difficult to detect cancer with low effective treatment results, causing the most deaths today is lung cancer. In Vietnam, after liver cancer, lung cancer is the second most dangerous disease in both men and women. Currently, according to research results, lung cancer is divided into 2 types: small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.
The cause to the illness:
- Smoking: Currently, 90% of patients with lung cancer are caused by smoking, 4% of patients by inhaling significant amounts of secondhand smoke daily.
- Working environment is a risk factor for lung cancer. Environmental agents cause lung cancer such as smog, people working in steel, nickel, chromium and coal gas environments.
- Exposure to radiation: This is the cause of many cancers, including lung cancer. Patients working in uranium, fluorspar and hacmatite mines may be exposed to radiation by breathing air containing radon.
- In the early stages, the disease has no obvious signs, only some symptoms: persistent cough, chest pain, especially when breathing deeply, wheezing or shortness of breath, cough with phlegm or blood, fatigue tired.
- In the later stages, the disease spreads to parts of the chest causing severe pain, hoarseness, swelling of the face, wide neck, rapid breathing and pulmonary effusion.
- Do not smoke, avoid places with smoke and polluted environment.
- If you have to work in an environment exposed to many chemicals. You should strictly follow the safety instructions.
- Routine health check for early detection, home radon level check…
Ovarian Cancer is a disease in which malignant cells arise from different parts of the ovary, the disease not only affects the health but also affects the fertility of women, especially with the risk of death. 3rd most common type of cancer. Types of ovarian cancer include: Carcinoma of the ovary is cancer cells that develop from cells on the surface of the ovary. This is the most common type. Germ cell cancer is cancer that begins in the cells that produce eggs, which is less common than carcinoma. Ovarian cancer begins in the tissue cells that support the ovary. This type is also rare.
The cause to the illness:
- Family history: People who are related by blood such as mother, sister, and younger sister with ovarian cancer.
- Having a family history of breast cancer, colon cancer also increases the risk of ovarian cancer.
- Personal history: Women with a history of breast cancer and colon cancer have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.
- Age: The likelihood of developing ovarian cancer increases with age, most appearing in people over the age of 50 and increasing in people over 60 years of age.
- Pregnancy and childbirth: Women who have been pregnant and given birth have a lower risk than those who have never given birth. The more children you have, the lower the risk.
- Use of ovulation-stimulating drugs: May slightly increase the risk of ovarian cancer. However, it is still under research.
- Hormone replacement therapy: Hormone replacement therapy after menopause increases the risk.
- Talc powder: Women who use talcum powder a lot in the genitals increase the risk of ovarian cancer
- Discomfort and pain in the lower abdomen
- Digestive disorders such as nausea, diarrhea or constipation
- Frequent urination due to increased pressure on the bladder
- Poor appetite, feeling full even after a light meal
- Unexplained weight gain or loss.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding after menopause, irregular changes in the menstrual cycle.
- Pain during sex.
- It is necessary to limit foods high in animal fat, high in protein, and rich in energy.
- Eat a lot like green vegetables, carrots, grains and foods containing hydrocarbon compounds, vitamin A, vitamin C, cellulose.
- Prolong breastfeeding.
- Periodic health examinations.
- Attention in the use of hormonal drugs…
Liver Cancer is a serious disease, rapid progression, difficult to treat, while the majority of liver cancer patients are detected at a late stage. Liver cancer is the uncontrolled growth and development of cancer cells in the liver. According to Globocan 2018, in Vietnam, liver cancer ranks first in terms of both mortality and number of new cases. Depending on the origin, malignant tumors are divided into primary liver cancer and metastatic liver cancer.
The cause to the illness:
- Cirrhosis: Liver cancer is common on the background of cirrhosis, accounting for up to 80%. Causes that can lead to carcinogenic cirrhosis include alcoholic cirrhosis, cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis C virus leading to hepatocellular carcinoma after 20-40 years, cirrhosis of the liver. due to iron contamination. However, there is still a percentage of people infected with hepatitis B and C viruses, even without cirrhosis, still have liver cancer.
- Prolonged use of oral contraceptives can also cause liver cancer. Long-term use of oral contraceptives causes an adenoma in the liver that can easily progress to hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Aflatoxin of the fungus Aspergillus present in foods such as peanuts and moldy beans can also be the cause of liver cancer.
- Jaundice: The most common symptom, most often manifesting itself when exposed to sunlight. Jaundice is the result of biliary obstruction caused by a tumor. Bile salts (bilirubin) regurgitate from the bile ducts into the hepatic sinusoids, enter the bloodstream, and are deposited in the skin. Jaundice is often accompanied by pale stools and dark urine (such as water).
- Yellow eyes: Presented in the sclera of the eye with a dark yellow color. This sign may appear before or simultaneously with jaundice.
- Pruritus: Often accompanies jaundice, but in many cases occurs before jaundice. The degree of pruritus usually increases at night and is almost unresponsive to dermatological treatments. Itching is caused by bile acid deposition in the skin, which stimulates sensory nerve receptors.
- Weight loss: About 30-50% of thin cases lose weight at the time of diagnosis. This is a consequence of digestive disorders (loss of appetite, indigestion, bloating) because there is no bile to be excreted into the intestines.
- Abdominal pain in the liver: The early stage is often vague, not clear. When abdominal pain is severe, it is often due to complications of biliary obstruction.
- The liver is enlarged, with a palpable margin below the costal margin with tenderness in 25% of cases. Localized mass: rarely palpable mass in the liver
- Reduce the burden on the liver like using clean fresh food.
- No smoking, no drinking alcohol.
- Keep the environment clean.
- Strengthen the body’s immunity such as vaccination against hepatitis B, C…
Stomach cancer It is the most common type of cancer, the leading type of gastrointestinal cancer. Gastric cancer is a phenomenon in which the normal structural cells of the stomach grow abnormally, mutate, out of control, and invade nearby (locally invasive) or distant (metastatic) tissues through the system. lymph. When stomach cancer is advanced, it can be fatal. Stomach cancer is one of the common malignancies, easily metastasized and has a high mortality rate. Knowing the signs of stomach cancer and having regular health screenings will help you detect stomach cancer at an early stage, thereby having an effective treatment plan.
The cause to the illness:
- Precancerous lesions include: atrophy of the gastric mucosa (formed by chronic, untreated gastritis), cells in the gastric mucosa, morphologically similar to those of the intestine, and colon (intestinal metaplasia); gastric mucosal cells change structure, escape the control of the body (paraplasia).
- Helicobacter pylori: Causes chronic gastric mucosal ulcers, leading to precancerous lesions.
- Stomach cancer is associated with a number of genetic syndromes. The rate of genetic inheritance of atrophic gastritis from mother to child is 48%.
- People with a history of stomach surgery have a higher risk of stomach cancer. Therefore, for people with a history of gastric surgery, it is advisable to focus on periodic screening to detect cancer early.
- In addition, other factors such as obesity, blood type, age, gender or lifestyle habits are also factors that increase the risk of stomach cancer.
- Bloating, bloating: This is a symptom that appears in the early stages of stomach cancer. Patients often feel bloated and nauseated after eating.
- Loss of appetite, loss of appetite: This symptom is often accompanied by difficulty swallowing or the feeling that food is always blocked in the throat.
- Sudden weight loss: This is one of the most obvious and basic symptoms of stomach cancer. Patients can lose up to 15% of their body weight in just a few months.
- Heartburn, heartburn: heartburn, heartburn accompanied by discomfort, pain in the stomach, taking medicine to see a decrease … are symptoms that are easily mistaken for stomach pain, but not because of that. subjectivity permission.
- Severe abdominal pain: Starts as intermittent pain, then gradually becomes more frequent and severe.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding: Gastrointestinal bleeding (vomiting blood, frequent black stools…) is common in people with stomach and colon ulcers, but when experiencing this symptom, the patient needs to consider the possibility of gastrointestinal bleeding. stomach cancer and should immediately go to medical facilities for examination.
- Store food in the refrigerator instead of salt, eat more fruits and vegetables.
- No smoking.
- Know your medical history.
- Regular endoscopy is required if you have ever had a Helicobacter pylori infection.
Breast cancer It is a fairly common disease, leading to death among diseases in women today. Breast cancer is a malignant tumor of the breast. A tumor can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Most breast cancers start in the milk ducts, with a small percentage developing in the milk sacs or lobules. Breast cancer, if detected and treated late, may have metastasized to the bones and other organs, and the pain will multiply.
The cause to the illness:
- Breast cancer is often acquired in women who have given birth late, are not fertile, or are not breastfeeding.
- Inherited genes: If your mother or grandmother or siblings have this disease, you should also go to the hospital to get checked, because this disease can be passed on in family members.
- Early menarche or late menopause can also be the cause.
- People with a history of breast-related diseases such as cystic fibrosis…
- Living in a toxic and polluted environment also creates conditions for the development of breast cancer.
- Obesity, inactivity, eating foods that are poor in vitamins, smoking, and drinking alcohol are also at risk of breast cancer.
- Initially there are no specific symptoms, in some people there will be a hard, painless object on the chest.
- In the next stages, there will be obvious symptoms such as sore nipples, oozing, pulling inwards, palpating a lump in the breast or lump in the breast or armpit, breast skin changes. difference in shape and color from the other breast, pain in one or more areas of the breast.
- Limit foods that are too cooked, foods that are too oily, too sweet, and stimulants.
- Supplement with omega 3 fatty acids, green vegetables and fruits such as lettuce, vegetables, garlic… and combine functional products according to the doctor’s advice.
- Breast cancer screening, and regular health check-ups: Because the “preclinical” period of breast cancer lasts from 8 to 10 years, screening is of great value in detecting and treating. effective disease.
Throat cancer It is one of the leading cancers of the head, face and neck and is the most common cancer in general. The cause of oropharyngeal cancer is still not clear. However, there are three main risk factors for this disease: Epstein-Barr virus, genetics and environment. Because of its deep location, nasopharyngeal cancer is often difficult to detect early, the signs of the disease are often mixed with the symptoms of other organs. Therefore, patients often come to the hospital late or have been treated in other specialties such as otolaryngology, ophthalmology, and neurology. The diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer is based on clinical signs, nasopharynx, radiographs, cytological diagnosis and histopathology.
The cause to the illness:
- Have an EBV or HPV infection.
- Regularly exposed to smoke, dust, poorly ventilated environment, chemicals.
- Eat a lot of salted fish and fermented foods, drink a lot of alcohol, smoke a lot.
- Genetics, age…
- Nasopharyngeal cancer is a silent disease that leaves almost no symptoms.
- In the early stages, the disease has symptoms such as intermittent dull headache, tinnitus on one side, stuffy nose on one side, swollen lymph nodes in the neck…
- In the later stages, the cancer cells grow strongly, leading to a larger tumor, severe headache, markedly impaired hearing and vision, loss of sensation in the throat, loss of swallowing reflex, and discharge of pus. The nose may be accompanied by blood, entering the final stage, the disease will now invade the nose – throat area, oral cavity, invade the eye socket, causing squinting, protruding eyes, blindness …
- Nasopharyngeal cancer with distant metastases in the brain, bones, lungs, liver and other organs, especially in the lungs and bones, indicates that the disease has metastasized.
- When the disease has metastasized, it is a sign that you have entered the final stage of cancer and at this time it is difficult to completely cure the disease.
- Do not smoke, pipe tobacco.
- Limit alcohol and alcoholic beverages.
- Limit foods high in salt.
- Do not eat foods that are too hot, which can damage the pharynx.
Colorectal cancer It is the second leading cause of death after lung cancer. Men have a higher risk of illness and death than women. People with a family history of the disease, over the age of 2, and unhealthy diets are at higher risk. If detected early, the disease can be cured. Colorectal cancer is cancer that originates in the colon (the main part of the large intestine) or the rectum (the junction between the colon and anus). It is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women. Most colon cancers arise from growths in the lining of the colon called polyps. Some forms of polyps can progress to cancer after many years. The likelihood of developing cancer depends on the type of polyp. There are two main types of polyps: adenoma (adenoma): This polyp sometimes develops into cancer, and hyperplastic and inflammatory polyps: This type is more common, but Usually not a precancerous condition.
The cause to the illness:
- Until now, the cause of the disease has not been determined, only known that it is closely related to our diet.
- In addition, other risk factors for colorectal cancer are: Smoking. Especially those who have smoked for many years. Drink alcohol. Research shows a link between alcohol consumption (even if it’s moderate) and certain types of cancer: breast, colon and rectal, esophagus, larynx, liver, mouth and throat. Obesity and overweight. No physical activity. A diet rich in red meat, processed meat (sausages, ham, smoked meats, grilled meats etc.), and low in fruits and vegetables. Lack of natural light.
- Loss of appetite, indigestion, abnormal changes in bowel movements such as constipation, blood in the stool…
- Unusual weight loss.
- Stomach cramps, persistent abdominal pain.
- Detecting a tumor in the colon, colon, abdominal distension, belching…
- Quit smoking.
- Increase physical activity.
- Reach and maintain a healthy weight.
- Limit alcohol intake.
- Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables and whole grains.
- Limit consumption of red meat, cold meat (processed – preserved meat).
Blood cancer Leukemia is a malignancy. It is the only cancer that does not produce a tumor. When suffering from this disease, the white blood cells in the patient’s body will increase dramatically. Normally, white blood cells are responsible for protecting the body, however, when increased suddenly, a large number of white blood cells will become “aggressive” and cause harm to us. At that time, white blood cells will be deprived of “food”, leading to the phenomenon of “eating” red blood cells. This causes the red blood cells to be gradually destroyed, causing the patient to become anemic, which in turn leads to death. Blood cancer (acute leukemia) is a disease that occurs because blood cells are cancerous in the process of creating cells, they will multiply very quickly and if not treated in time, it will stagnate. deposits in the bone marrow, interfering with the subsequent production of normal blood cells. Leukemia is a common disease in children, accounting for about 30% of pediatric cancers. Statistics show that every year in the US, one person is diagnosed with blood cancer every three minutes, and every nine minutes someone dies.
The cause to the illness:
- Exposure to radioactive sources, such as in the case of atomic bomb victims in Japan at the end of World War II, the 1986 Chernobyl (Ukraine) nuclear explosion accident or in patients receiving radiation therapy.
- Cancer patients are treated with drugs and chemotherapy.
- Working in an environment with many chemicals such as benzene, formaldehyde.
- Some diseases are caused by genetic changes such as Down syndrome, viruses or some blood diseases.
- Symptoms of blood cancer depend a lot on the number of malignant white blood cells in the blood as well as on where these cells affect the body. Therefore, each patient has different symptoms.
- When cancerous white blood cells grow rapidly in the marrow, it causes bone pain. At the same time, they displace and reduce the growth of other normal blood cells. At that time, the patient may have symptoms such as red spots, headache, bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, pale skin, the body always feels tired, nosebleeds, frequent high fever, abdominal pain.
- Avoid contact with chemicals: Chemicals such as herbicides, benzene, etc. are one of the main risks for developing blood cancer. In case of force majeure, try to minimize contact time and wear protective gear such as gloves, masks…
- Avoid radiation exposure: Radiation can also change components in the blood, so it is better to minimize the time of exposure to high concentrations of rays.
- Exercise regularly: It is recommended to exercise at least 30 minutes a day, do gentle, moderate exercises because science proves that exercise can prevent cancer and blood cancer is no exception. rate.
- Diet: Patients should eat foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables, while minimizing consumption of saturated fats and trans fats.
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