Temple Maison Carree
Temple Maison Carree, located in Nimes, southern France, was built in 16 BC by Roman Consul Marcus Vipanius Agrippa, to give to his two children, both of whom died young. It is one of the best preserved Roman temple facades found in the territory of the former Roman Empire. Maison Carrée is an example of Vitruvian architecture. Perched on a platform 2,85 m high, the temple dominated all the public places of the Roman city, forming a rectangle almost twice the width, measuring 26,42 m x 13,54 m. The façade is dominated by a very deep entrance or shrine gate nearly a third of the length of the building. It is a hexastyle design with 6 Corinthian citadel columns on the soles of the feet at either end, and of which 20 participating columns are mounted along the walls of the inner sanctum. Above the columns, the dome is divided by two rows of water drips that turn into three levels in a 1:2:3 ratio. Decorative swirls of egg yolks and darts divide the dome from the scene. On three sides, the setting is decorated with beautifully decorated carvings of roses and hemp leaves beneath a row of very fine dentures.
A large door (6,87 m high, 3,27 m wide) leads to a small and windowless interior. This is surprising. This is now used to house a travel-oriented film about the Roman history of Nimes. And especially there were no ancient decorations inside the dungeon. Temple Maison Carree underwent a further restoration between 1988 – 1992, during which time it was re-roofed and the square around it was cleared, showing the outlines of the forum. Sir Norman Foster was commissioned to build a modern art gallery and public library, called Carré d’Art, on the other side of the square, to replace the city theater of Nîmes, which had burned down in 1952. This provides a striking contrast to the Maison Carrée but reproduces many of its features, such as the gates and columns, in steel and glass. The contrast of its modernity is thus muted by the physical similarity between the two buildings, representing architectural styles 2000 years apart.
Temple of Sbeitla Forum
Sbeitla or Sufetula is a fairly well preserved Roman city in the middle of western Tunisia. The city had a large, almost square forum paved with stone slabs and surrounded by a wall. The forum has an entrance gate on one side and three Roman temples on the opposite side. Instead of building just one temple dedicated to the three most important Roman gods, Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, the people of Sbeitla built separate temples for each one. A similar arrangement is found only in Baelo Claudia, in Spain.
Town Sufetula It is believed to have been founded by the Romans in the 1st century AD (AD) during the reign of Emperor Vespasian. Due to the discovery of several steles written in Punic script, it appears to have been built upon an even older Carthaginian settlement. As was the case with most Roman settlements in Africa, Sufetula was originally a military settlement, but it quickly became very wealthy thanks to its rich agricultural hinterland. In those days, the climate of North Africa was wetter than it is now and it was called the granary of Rome. Judging by the large number of olive presses found in the vicinity, their prosperity rested on the olive oil industry.
Temple of the Panthenon
Temple of the Panthenon It was built between 118 and 126 AD during the reign of King Hadrian. This is one of the largest architectural works of antiquity. With its superb design, the Pantheon deserves to be the pinnacle of ancient Roman engineering thinking. Located in the Italian capital of Rome, the Pantheon – “the temple of all the gods” – is one of the most representative architectural works of the Roman Empire that still exists today. This is one of the largest buildings in ancient times with a height of 43 m, 84 m long, 58 m wide. Both form and scale surpass those of earlier Roman works. The façade of the Panthenon resembles that of Greek-style temples with eight gray marble pillars, Corinthian tops, and white marble pillars. Next are 8 rows of pink marble pillars dividing the temple hall into 3 parts, in which the middle part goes inside the temple.
The center of the temple is a round cylindrical building with a hemispherical dome with a diameter of 43,44 m. It was the largest dome for 13 centuries, until Brunelleschi’s church of Santa Maria Del Fiore in Florence took the crown. This dome is made of concrete mixed with lava rock to reduce weight. In the temple without windows, on the top of the dome there is an empty circle with a diameter of 8,92 m, which is the only place that brings natural light into the temple. The layout inside Panthenon in a minimalist fashion. The motifs in the altars, prayer houses, and tombstones are not as cumbersome as in other Christian churches. The floor is made of glossy granite, combining many stone styles, many patterns and colors are very impressive. The Pantheon is dedicated to the Roman gods. From 609 BC onwards, it became a church as well as a place to worship the Italian kings as well as the world’s leading musicians and painters such as Raphael Annibale Carracci, Areangelo Corelli or the talented architect Baldassare Peruzzi.
Garni Temple – the oldest and best preserved temple that played an important role in building Armenia. The temple is located at the edge of a unique triangular cliff and is part of Garni fortress. The temple of Garni in Armenia was built by Armenian King Trdates I in the 6st century AD, dedicated to Helios, the Roman god of the sun. The temple was built with bold ancient Greek architecture – Doric column style. On the high platform, a rectangular building appears, with 8 stone columns on the short side and 24 on the long side, a triangular water wheel with decorative reliefs like a miniature Parthenon. 24 stone pillars represent 1679 hours of the day. However, the basalt columns here are darker than the white marble columns in Greece. In 1970, an earthquake completely destroyed the ancient Roman temple and it lay in ruins until its rebuilding in the XNUMXs.
The temple is located in the city of Garni impregnable with a rocky canyon as a natural barrier on 3 sides and walls with 14 square towers guarding the only way to enter the fortress. The fortress wall is built of giant blue basalt blocks, the tower length is more than 310m, the thickness is 2m. Many tourists and scientists come here to admire the ancient architects. The temple is one of the ancient structures recognized by UNESCO as a world heritage site. The temple was built in the form of Ionian columns, this is the most prominent architecture and symbol of pre-Christian Armenia. This structure was probably built by King Tiridates I in the XNUMXst century to serve as a temple for the sun god Mihr. After the Christianization of Armenia in the early fourth century, it became the royal lodge for Khosrovidukht, sister of King Tiridates III.
Baalshamin Temple is an ancient temple in the city of Palmyra, Syria, dedicated to the Canaanite god Baalshamin. The temple is one of the most complete ancient structures in Palmyra. The temple was built in 131, while the altar in front of the temple was built in 115. However, part of the temple was damaged to some extent by the 2013 bombing during the Syrian civil war. The southeast corner of the temple wall was damaged by thieves when they punched two holes to steal the guest house’s belongings. In July 7, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant planted a large number of explosives in the temple and blew it up. Therefore, the information as well as the architectural style of this temple is still very little.
When Christianity reached the area in the 5th century the temple was moved to a church. Discovered by Swiss archaeologists in 1954 – 1956, the temple is one of the most complete ancient structures in Palmyra. The temple is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Although destroyed, this is still a great work of the ancient Romans left for mankind. The temple is also on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Photos of preparations for demolition, explosions and ruins were posted. It is thought that Isil has stated they have no intention of destroying Palmyra’s world heritage site, but will destroy any statues that are deemed “polytheistic”. UNESCO has described the intentional destruction of the temple as a “war crime”.
Ancient temple in Dougga . reserve
Dougga is a city in northern Tunisia, included in a 65-hectare archaeological site that houses well-preserved monuments and ancient Numidian-Berber, Punic, Roman ruins. Among the most famous monuments here are the Libyco-Punic Mausoleum, the capital, the theater, and the temples of Saturn and Juno Caelestis. Temple of Juno Caelestis, built on the outskirts of the city between 222 and 235 AD. The temple is dedicated to Juno Caelestis, successor of the Punic god Tanit. The site is 52 meters in diameter, surrounded by a wall, reminiscent of the crescent moon, the symbol of Juno Caelestis. The courtyard floor is only partially tiled and has two symmetrical doors. One door with 25 houses runs along the circle of the land. A large door topped with a photograph depicting the construction of the temple.
The Temple of Mercury is dedicated to Tellus. The temple is largely ruins. It has 3 internal rooms but no courtyard. The sanctuary is accessible via a series of four stairs, standing on a faded platform. The temple was excavated and preserved between 1904 and 1908. Victoria Cathedral, located northeast of the site, below the Temple of Saturn is the only Christian building that has been excavated at the site. Dougga. In the late 4th century AD or in the early 5th century, the Christian community erected an unusually designed small church in a pagan cemetery. The Temple of Massinissa is located on the western slopes of the capital. This is a sanctuary recognized as keeping many of the oldest Roman structures. The unique combination of these ancient architectures has made Dougga an attractive tourist destination for tourists around the world to visit.
Temple of Baalbek
If you are attracted by the giant stone structure or the Egyptian pyramids, the ruined temples in Baalbek won’t let you down. Part of these ruins lies on the Litani River in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon during the Roman period, it is called the Temple of Jupiter. From the 1st century BC and over the course of two centuries, the Romans built three temples here named after the stars: Jupiter, Mercury and Venus, forming a complex the largest temple in the Roman Empire. The temple of Jupiter is lined with 54 giant Granite columns, each side measuring 21 meters (70 feet) high. Only 6 of these pillars are still standing today and they are extremely impressive. The best preserved temple on the site is that of Bacchus built in 150 AD. The ancient Roman temple was dedicated to Bacchus, also known as Dionysus, the Roman god of wine.
This temple Truly one of the most impressive ancient temples in the world. Measuring 88 x 48 meters and standing on a platform or platform, leading up to it is a ladder. This platform is 13 meters higher than the surrounding terrain. There are a total of 24 such rocks located next to each other in the temple complex, the smallest one is about 300 tons, measuring 20 x 5 x 5m. The wonderful horizontal two-stone structure consists of a row of three stones located on the west side of the Temple of Jupiter, each weighing no less than 3 tons. However, the lack of architectural mastery in the layout of the stones by the Romans made these rocks messy and the purpose of this massive stone construction still remains. is a mystery to this day.