There is an opinion that: If he did not write “Chi Pheo”, Nam Cao would have left a big gap in Vietnamese literature. Chi Pheo is Nam Cao’s first work presented to readers, since its appearance it has become a problem, a masterpiece of the realist literary movement. This is a typical work written about farmers because it is only here that the reader understands what is the ultimate suffering of Vietnamese peasants in a feudal society. If in the works of other realist writers: Ngo Tat To, Nguyen Cong Hoan… the image of the farmer only appears with unjust oppression, being pushed to the last step, but they still keep it. But when he came to Nam Cao, there were new discoveries, he not only discovered the tragedy of impoverishment but also discovered the tragedy of being corrupted by delinquents and being denied power. be a farmer.
At the beginning of the page, Nam Cao let Chi Pheo appear with a very unique and vivid image: Chi Pheo limped while cursing: Chi Pheo’s curse immediately gave the reader an image of an incident. unusual work. Why does a human have to raise such curses? Why are those curses unanswered…? But we will see that this curse is not indifferent, not simple, but it is very logical, very meaningful. At first, he cursed heaven to curse life and then cursed all of Vu Dai village… but the object of these curses was ambiguous until he cursed and didn’t know who gave birth to his body for him to suffer like this… object has been identified.
Chi Pheo cursed to realize the cause of his own tragedy. But he immediately understood that his curse was hopeless, he felt deeply the misery of fate, he had to curse in order to wish someone would curse him back, so that he could communicate with others. life, with people. However, no one would curse him back, which means that everyone has stopped seeing him as a person. To reprimand him means to admit that he is a human being and to be willing to communicate and converse with him. Chi cursed Vu Dai village in the hope that someone would curse back. But he received only an eerie silence, and Chi was still alone in the lonely desert: he kept cursing and listening, only three ferocious dogs and a drunkard.
By opening this unique story, the author not only introduces but also begins to reveal to readers the tragic situation of a fate, that is, the fate of a farmer who is devastated by society. , destroys all humanity, thus being denied the value and dignity of a human being. Chi Pheo’s sufferings were all nil at first: no home, no door, no parents, no relatives, not an inch of ground to stick to… But that’s just the beginning, painful suffering. Chi Pheo’s best part is being turned away by the whole society, being robbed of human souls, being excluded from human society, and having to live the dark life of animals. From the past to the present, from the nature to the phenomenon of Chi Pheo has changed. In the past, Chi Pheo was a gentle person like a lump of earth, with an honest nature, from the time he entered the farming field for the Ba Kien family, he was pushed into prison by Ba Kien, after 7-8 years in prison, Chi Pheo was released. has fallen into unconsciousness and corrupted by delinquents, all actions of Chi Pheo must be through alcohol, taking place in the unconscious: stabbing, slashing for hire, looting, slitting the face… The crimes Chi’s name kept filling up in the eyes of the people of Vu Dai village.
It was thought that the fate of Chi Pheo’s life would forever slide on the slope of corrupt delinquents and fall into the depths of a sinful life; But the appearance of Thi No brought Chi Pheo from the depths of a corrupt life to the shore of an honest life. This can be seen as a great event, an event that opened a turning point in Chi Pheo’s life, bringing Chi Pheo back to human life. The appearance of Thi No with a bowl of onion porridge has expressed sympathy and benevolent humanity. The woman who is so ugly that she hates the devil is the only person in Vu Dai village who knows “how can it be so gentle sometimes”. The warmth of the administrative bowl of porridge is the warmth of the benevolent humanity that has made the honest man sink in the image of the devil, the bullhead has resurrected, now the soul has risen. in Chi Pheo.
After the honest man was resurrected, Chi Pheo’s personality and soul woke up to listen to the simple and rustic sounds that Chi had long forgotten. Chi suddenly recalled the memories of the good times: Wishing to have a small family, her husband hires a plow, his wife weaves cloth, they give up a pig as capital, if they are rich, they buy a few sao. he should have had a normal life like so many others but now when he wakes up he finds that he is old but still alone he is still living on the margins of life in a miserable way , he felt sad, felt humiliated. More than ever, now he wishes to be human, to talk…
But the moments of love in the life of the couple Chi Pheo – Thi No were short, the happiness that had just been revealed had ended. Chi Pheo and Thi No had walked hand in hand to the threshold of life but were brutally rejected by the social prejudice that Mrs. Thi No represented. When he woke up and faced reality, Chi Pheo was startled and realized more deeply that he had been rejected from the community and could no longer become an honest person in the eyes of everyone.
When the honest man in Chi Pheo was resurrected, he aspired to be human more than ever. But longing is still just a longing, like a rainbow after the rain, like a small fire extinguished when just rekindled his desire to be a human has been completely rejected. Chi returned to loneliness again, and was painful and sad when he realized he had no way back: “No way! Who gave me honesty? How do I lose all these bottles on my face? ?”. This is Chi Pheo’s high self-consciousness about his own tragedy. The image of calluses on the face is the mark of years of sin. This image has been deeply imprinted in the minds of the people of Vu Dai village and has become a terrifying obsession for them. In everyone’s eyes, Chi Pheo is the devil. Bullhead and this image can’t be erased anymore. It was the prejudice that prevented Chi Pheo’s footsteps from returning to an honest life.
More than anyone else, Thi No was the one who gave Chi Pheo sympathy for the benevolent humanity, but it was Thi No who pushed Chi Pheo to the brink of death. Market is both a means, a tool and a victim of prejudice.
At this point, Chi Pheo falls into the tragedy of choosing between life and female personality. In the end, Chi Pheo sought death to affirm his personality. Chi took a knife and stabbed Ba Kien – the biggest enemy of his life, and then committed suicide. Chi Pheo made a choice – a harsh choice, but it was the only way for the honest man in Chi to live, for his human personality to exist.
Chi Pheo’s suicide is the strongest, most intense and final battle between a gentle man like a lump of earth and the devil, the bullhead. In this duel, Chi Pheo died, but his honest personality rose and shined, which is also the inevitable victory of good over evil, as well as the clearest expression of his character. Humanitarian thought and humanistic spirit of Nam Cao’s pen.
In the 40s of the century, our people’s life was very difficult, they were exploited and miserable, or they were slaves to the mandarin class, with no way out. Before that reality, there have been many writers standing up for the right, criticizing reality with their pen. Among those authors, Nam Cao stands out for his writings that deeply explore the tragedy of human lives suffering in the dark of society. Chi Pheo is one of the works that is considered as his masterpiece in terms of talent as well as in artistic style.
The short story Chi Pheo recreated the rural image of Vietnamese society at that time (before the August Revolution). It is a society characterized by one side being the face of Ba Kien, Li Cuong, Doi Tao… is a group of powerful men who dominate, exploiting the labor of the people, but also within the interior. This set also has contradictions. They are like a school of fish fighting for prey. The bait is delicious, but all rafts want to eat, so they are always waiting for the opportunity to dominate each other, wanting to defeat each other to ride their heads and necks on top of each other. The conflict is quite common and acute, related to the fates of Binh Chuc, Nam Tho and especially Chi Pheo.
The second class is people like Chi Pheo, Nam Tho, Binh Chic, they form a separate group. They are ordinary people, poor working people, but have been rogue, bribed and become henchmen for the ruling landlords, the powerful, the liar and committed countless crimes. for the honest people. Under Nam Cao’s pen, a dramatic social picture emerges containing explosive conflicts.
The author has built the image of Chi Pheo as a typical person for those who are alienated. To alienate means to change into something else. When people are corrupted, they often become worse than their good nature. Chi Pheo, corrupted in two aspects. Chi Pheo was originally a person with a gentle nature, an honest farmer who had to live like a demon in Vu Dai village. Not only that, the villagers of Vu Dai village became alienated from Chi, refusing to let him return as a “human”. People were even more afraid, more pitiful than when Chi died, the whole village was not mourned but rejoiced.
Through the character Chi Pheo, Nam Cao directly raised the issue of people being alienated, displaced, losing their humanity and personality because of oppression, exploitation, poverty, and extreme poverty. The author has dissected problems in life, the sense of the right to life, the right to be a human, the sense of personality and dignity even in the people who are despised by the community, marginalized by the society. But readers can also see that Chi Pheo’s story also helps readers have a basis to share the torments and sufferings of people when they can’t be human, just wish to have a normal life. No one answered Chi’s “Who gave me honesty” as if awakening his fate, but his cry was not accepted by anyone.
It was his awareness of being corrupted, wanting to return to being an honest person but no one accepted him, that led to the tragedy that followed in his life. Although Chi Pheo has been corrupted for a long time, before meeting No, he lived constantly in alcohol and did not find himself suffering, that is, he did not really have an inner tragedy. Until he fell ill, Chi met No, a woman who was so bad that he was “disgusted by the devil” who helped him awaken his corrupt state and began to take place in Chi’s inner life.
Chi Pheo was aware that the person who caused his life to suffer, turning him into the devil of Vu Dai village was Ba Kien, a typical character for the ruling class. Ba Kien was exposed by Nam Cao to his evil and cruel face. This is a powerful old fox in the “occupation” of dominating black people. He looks noble, speaks well, understands life, understands people, helps people in need in times of trouble. But it is he who pushes good people like Chi to the path of crime, his nature is disgusting. Therefore, Chi came to claim justice with Ba Kien in the drunkenness, but it was the most sober time in Chi’s life. But because he was so small in front of the evil ruling power, he caused Chi suffering to continue suffering.
Suffering is more extreme when Chi wants to have a family with Thi No. After a few days with Thi No, he knew the warm feeling of family, knowing joy, knowing sadness, dreaming, repenting… Thus, Chi is not a cold-blooded person. But being a “crazy” person with no stance, Thi No also rejected Chi. And his last path is to find and kill Ba Kien and then commit suicide. A painful ending for people who have no way out in life.
Ending the story, not only that, although Ba Kien died but still had children, powerful forces continued to exploit black people, and Thi looked down at her belly and the abandoned brick kiln. People understand that “old bamboo shoots grow”. And so, the deaths of Chi and Ba Kien denounced the social reality but did not solve that reality.
Nam Cao is someone who has deep sympathy and sharing with farmers to understand and portray such a social picture. The author has successfully built the character of Chi Pheo, who is not only a representative of the alienated class, but also an earnest cry for help of unfortunate people. Let’s fight to protect their rights, right to life, right to be a human. Through this, we can see the profound humanitarian value expressed in the short story Chi Pheo.
“- Who gave me honest? How to erase all the bottles on this face…?” Before stabbing Ba Kien and taking his own life, Chi Pheo – the character in Nam Cao’s work of the same name, shouted like that. . The story of a man asking for honesty, asking for the bottles to be erased from his own face in the fairy tale has made generations of readers sob for many decades. What troubles pushed that person into that ironic situation? In the short story that is considered the masterpiece of Nam Cao – Chi Pheo, the reader has found the answer. That is the process of alienation of the character Chi Pheo, from a simple and gentle farmer to a corrupt person in both soul and appearance, but Chi still has humanity.
Chi Pheo was born in 1941, when the works on the subject of farmers became too old. Even to increase the attraction and curiosity for readers, a publisher even changed it with a more trendy name. But no, with his unique talent and creativity, Nam Cao wrote the fate of the farmer with his own and different features. Right from the title, which he later renamed Chi Pheo, it also reminded readers of a phenomenon of Vietnamese rural society before the August Revolution – 1945. Tu Chi turned into Chi Pheo is a story about a person’s life slides down the slope of alienation. Until I want to stop, I want to turn back, but I can’t anymore.
It wouldn’t be worth mentioning if people were born in disadvantaged, unlucky circuTaxances and then fell and metamorphosed. That is due to the circuTaxances of being born without parents, without someone to teach and nurture properly. Many such prejudices have formed in the minds of each of us for a long time. But with the case of Chi in this work, it is different. Unhappy from birth. In his naked, gray form in the old brick kiln, Chi grew up day by day by passing the hands of the villagers to each other. Sometimes he was given away, sometimes sold, and grew up to be a muscular, strong twenty-year-old young man who worked as a field farmer for the Ba Kien family. Recognizing the ability of people to rise up in such circuTaxances, Chi is a man full of energy. No family, no house, no land to plant, the status is to live and work as a servant for the rich. But the mind is good. Know the dream of a simple, happy life: husband plows, hoe hires, wife weaves cloth. Know humiliation and shame when being seduced and groped by Ba Kien’s wife. Before entering the work with a drunken appearance, cursing while walking, Chi was such a gentle, simple and honest farmer.
But the miserable habit of life often raises its claws, no matter how good a person is, if he doesn’t cheat and cheat himself and live in that situation, he will also be swept away and battered by it until he doesn’t even realize it. are people. Objectively assessed, the semi-feudal colonial society in rural Vietnam before the August Revolution – 1945 was such a habit. Readers are still discussing that Ba Kien’s aimless jealousy would be very normal if he was just a farmer of Vu Dai village. But it turned into the extreme fury of a lustful man who had reached the highest office here. So the right to live, the right to kill is in the hands, if anyone wants to live, they will live, if they want to die, they will die, or more cruelly, someone who is still alive is not as good as death. That jealousy became a danger, a springboard to push Chi into the wheel of alienation. But first of all, the corruption of humanity.
The colonial prison quickly turned Mr. Chi into a thug, a delinquent right from his appearance. Writer Nam Cao himself had to say twice when he described his appearance after seven or eight years in prison. The bald head, the white shaved teeth, the glazed eyes, the very heavy face, wearing a yellow shirt, black sow pants, chest and arms carved with mace-wielding generals. People no longer recognize the gentle, honest watchman anymore. But whatever, that appearance has not made them feel that they start to fear Chi, fear Chi and completely alienate Chi until he gradually has dehumanizing actions.
He had just returned from prison, but he had been drinking with dog meat from noon to afternoon. And since then, people see him drunk every day. Chi upset the whole village of Vu Dai with crazy drunken fights, staggered to bring bottles to Ba Kien’s house, cursed, and scolded. The act of drunkenness pushed him further than one thought. At first, Chi only did it unconsciously, drunk to curse Ba Kien, but gradually got drunk to plead for life, to claim benefits for himself. To do so, Chi volunteered to make himself a henchman for Ba Kien. How many families were ruined by Chi, blood was also spilled, Chi became unruly and aggressive in his constant drunkenness. I don’t know when Chi sold his soul to the devil. From being pushed, but then Chi slid down the slope of alienation. Chi lost all his humanity, and the people of Vu Dai village did not consider him human. Chi becomes Chi Pheo – a superfluous, discarded part of society. So what Chi Pheo did right from the beginning of the work was to curse but no one bothered to respond. His cursing voice was just like the sound of ordinary animals of life, no one bothered to listen, sad to respond.
That was also the time when Chi had completely fallen into the abyss of alienation. That extreme loneliness Chi could not relieve with anyone, Chi was pushed out of the human world, to the fringes of society. Chi’s alienation is the most brutal, honest reflection of rural Vietnamese society before the August Revolution. At the same time, it is also a strong denunciation of cruel and cruel people who deliberately pushed Chi and used Chi to turn him into the demon of Vu Dai village. That portrait of him is the embodiment of the greatest suffering of farmers in society today.
But under the humanitarian pen of Nam Cao, Chi Pheo is not alone. In the extremes of life, Chi was awakened by the writer with the few remaining people. The curse in the form of that demon contains the endless desire to return to the human world. It was the scream of a human who had finally sold his soul to the devil. Nam Cao sympathizes and understands this, even though his voice is a bit cold. This is the reason for Chi’s complete awakening, awakening the desire to return to her right after the fateful night of meeting Thi No. In fact, Chi’s honest nature was not lost, but it was only temporarily buried deep and smoldering. Without humanity, Chi could not realize a bitter life with a seemingly peaceful but humiliating past, with an old, lonely present, and with an uncertain future, fearful of loneliness. Even he can’t hear the sounds, feel the flavors of life if he is still constantly in the drunkenness. Even more cannot feel the delicious taste of humanity through a bowl of onion porridge…
So many emotions and thoughts of a person resurfaced, Chi longed and longed to return to the flat human society. Then even when that brief hope was quickly extinguished by prejudice, Chi still dreamed. The act of asking for honesty, asking for the bottles to be erased from Ba Kien’s face is a brave act. Is it not human that Chi dares to speak loudly like that. In fact, it was the pain of Chi’s life. Tragedy must not be the one to push Chi to an assertive act, killing his enemies and taking his own life. That was the only way Chi could do right now to prove that his desire to be human was real. This is not the behavior of a demon, but the stalemate, the pain of no other choice, of a human. Chi’s humanity has risen strongly, Chi has revived.
Chi Pheo’s process of alienation is a very realistic description of the fate of Vietnamese farmers before the August Revolution, 1945. From a gentle and simple farmer, Chi turned into a demon of Vu village. Grand. It is the bell that continues to warn people about a cruel, unjust and inhuman society. But Nam Cao let his love-filled pen exploit, discover and affirm the honest nature in him. Although Chi Pheo died on the threshold of returning to life, people certainly sympathized and believed in the humanity still in him.
Nam Cao, a great writer of the nation, has left behind many good works, with both content value and profound humanitarian value. He is a man with a kind heart filled with love and attachment to his homeland. Therefore, we can see that his main inspiration through many works is the image of a farmer. One of the works that leave the most impression on readers is “Chi Pheo”, a work that summarizes a tumultuous period of the country in poor rural areas, where there were low-income people. baby throat has been banished to the end. We can clearly see that through the alienation process of the main character Chi Pheo of the work of the same name.
The work “Chi Pheo” was written in 1936, on the subject of peasants in the period before the August Revolution. The work has been renamed many times to match the content. Until 1946, when this short story was printed in “Lung Plow” with the name “Chi Pheo”, the most comprehensive and complete expression of the work’s ideas. Chi Pheo is the main character of the story. He had an unfortunate fate of being abandoned at a young age at an old brick kiln, and then raised by the people of Vu Dai village. When he became an adult, he worked hard to do business but was falsely accused and sent to prison. After being released from prison, the years in the feudal colonial prison turned Chi from an honest person to a bossy man, and then became a henchman for Ba Kien. Chi’s life brightens up when she meets Thi No, and is awakened as a human, but is rejected by Thi No when Thi No listens to her aunt. Chi was angry, then sought Ba Kien to take revenge, killed Ba Kien, and then committed suicide.
Nam Cao described Chi Pheo’s corrupt process bitterly because a good person turned into a demon of the whole Vu Dai village. The appearance from the beginning of the story was very unique – Chi Pheo’s curse. He was drunk, he cursed everyone “cursing life”, “cursing heaven”, “cursing the whole village of Vu Dai”, “cursing whoever gave birth to him”. When drunk, people will probably think that the person is not sober, so no one attaches to him, people ignore him, or people are used to it, people think that he doesn’t curse at them. But why did Chi curse? Everything has its reasons, the more drunk he is, the more he realizes his fate, being a human that no one recognizes. He was sad and angry when he realized his situation, no one spoke to him, his only response was the barking of dogs. Chi is a lonely person, living as if he was not a human in the land he grew up in.
Opening with Chi’s curse, there are people who think that he has been a bad person since childhood and was not properly taught. But no, Nam Cao revealed that before going to prison he was a good person. He had a special childhood, without a father, without a mother, without an inch of land, abandoned in an abandoned brick kiln, and then raised by the people of Vu Dai village. When he grew up, Chi worked as a field farmer for Ba Kien, Chi spent his labors to support himself, his temperament was very “gentle as the earth”. He is also rich in self-esteem, he is disgusted with his actions, feels humiliated when being forced by the Ba Kien family to do “unjustified” things. He is also a person with a dream, an idyllic dream like many others “having a small family”, “husband hires a plow, wife weaves cloth”, “generally leaves a pig to raise as capital.” If they are rich, they can buy a few sao of fields to work on”. When he was still a young man in his 20s, Chi was still considered a human being, with an honest heart, with ambitions and dreams, but the corrupt feudal colonial system pushed such a good person to the brink. – being rejected as a human.
After seven or eight years of being released from prison, the gentle man like the land disappeared, Chi corrupted and became a demon in both appearance and personality. In terms of appearance, he has the appearance of a delinquent “bald head”, “white shaved teeth”, a face that is always “heavy”, two “glaring” eyes look horrible. The costumes are imitated by the colonists, wearing black sow pants, a yellow shirt, his chest is open, and there are also monstrous shapes carved on it… Not only his appearance, his humanity is also metamorphosed. He was aggressive and reckless, acting and speaking like a daredevil. He only made friends all day with alcohol, got drunk, and then went to Ba Kien’s house to curse. Instead of going to work, he immersed himself in drunkenness, destroying other honest families. He was willing to work as a henchman for Ba Kien, used by him to exchange for drunkenness all day.
Chi has become a demon of Vu Dai village without knowing it, everyone in the village is afraid of him, staying away from him. A life is meaningless to be born as a human without being recognized as a human. He also realizes his own mistakes, finds out the cause of the tragedy in his life. Ba Kien and the feudal colonial prison pushed Chi to the end. He took revenge on Ba Kien and committed suicide, he sought death as well as to free himself. From the character Chi, Nam Cao has built up an image with typical meanings, representing a part of the old peasants who were robbed of both human and human nature.
Nam Cao has been very successful in building the image of the character Chi Pheo with the art of depicting the character, the character is unique, each character has its own personality and is clearly revealed, creating an impression. strong to the reader. Not only that, Nam Cao’s storytelling style is also surprising when it comes to the present, past, and future tenses. His voice is sober, sharp, bitter, but at times affectionate and loving, combined with a lively, delicate language that is extremely close and simple to the people’s speech.
Chi Pheo – a realistic literary work that lives forever with time. The work denounced a brutal feudal colonial society robbing farmers of both humanity and humanity. At the same time, through that, Nam Cao also wants to send to readers, please respect and care about the people around you, discover the good qualities in people, so that everyone will have a good life. meaningful life and happiness of a person.
Nam Cao is a great realist writer whose humanitarian thought is both profound, new and unique. He is an excellent realist writer full of humanitarian spirit, specializing in writing on two topics: the poor intellectuals who are languishing and stuck in the old society and the peasants who were impoverished and hooliganized before the Revolution. August network. In which, Chi Pheo is a masterpiece in modern Vietnamese prose written by writer Nam Cao in 1941. The story recounts the life of a poor citizen named Chi Pheo. Chi Pheo is a vivid expression of the tragedy of being born as a human but not being a human. The story has many tragedies, but especially, in which the process of awakening and revival and the tragic rejection of Chi Pheo in the work is one of the passages that deeply express the human meaning and humanitarian values of the author. Products.
Chi Pheo, formerly an illegitimate child, was abandoned in the old brick kiln when he was just born. He was a gentle and honest farmer, but was exploited, oppressed and oppressed by the feudal society. “Demon of Vu Dai village”. Ba Kien pushed Chi Pheo to prison, turning Chi from a gentle farmer into a delinquent and became an effective henchman for the strongmen in the village. Chi lived almost unconsciously, abandoned by society, robbed of his human rights, robbed of both his humanity and humanity. And just like that, Chi Pheo was constantly drunk. Drunk to forget his human rights, drunk to do the things he was assigned to do, burned, robbed, and threatened many honest people. His drunkennesses spilled over, into a long, immense one, he ate while drunk, woke up drunk. He was never awake, and perhaps he was never sober, to remember him in the world.
I thought Chi Pheo would live forever as an animal, and then it would end by burying the body in a dusty bank, but with talent and especially with the humane heart of a great writer, Nam Cao let Chi Pheo return to human life naturally. He shone the light of love into the bottom of the dark soul of the demon Vu Dai village. In a drunken night, he happened to meet Thi No – a woman who was ugly and over-the-top. That night, they slept together, that random encounter, instinctively of a man in a drunken stupor. The qualities of a working farmer hidden deep within him were suddenly awakened. A little bit of rustic, natural love plus the simple care of Thi No has awakened her conscience and awakened the honest nature inherent in Chi’s person. It was thanks to that meeting that he awakened the human part of Chi, helping him to shed his demonic shell to come back to life as a human, yearning for a refund and honesty.
The passage describing Chi Pheo’s mood after the night of meeting Thi No proves that Nam Cao is worthy of a master of character psychoanalysis. Sobering up, Chi felt his heart suddenly feel “vaguely sad”. The previous times, when he was sober, he drank again, so he got drunk the next time. And this time, Chi Pheo sobered up with a different state “people are weak, limbs do not bother to lift; or hungry, he shivered a little. His gut felt a little queasy again. He is afraid of alcohol like sick people are afraid of rice.” After many years, Chi woke up for the first time in his life, suddenly realizing how bright the sunlight was outside in the damp tent, hearing all the sounds of life: the birds singing outside, so happy, English: fishing boat knocks oars to chase fish on the river, and people go to the market to sell cloth. Those familiar sounds were not there every day, but only today Chi felt and heard, because today Chi was not drunk. Maybe these sounds are the excited, earnest, urgent calls of life that have resounded in Chi’s newly awakened soul.
After that, Chi woke up and looked back on his life in the past, present and future. Above all, the idyllic dream of “having a small family, the husband working to hire the plow, the wife weaving” suddenly returned to Chi. Chi was sober and emotionally and cognitively awake. Chi finds his present sad because “he has reached the other side of life”. The future for him is even more sad, he is also afraid because he has foreseen “old age, hunger, cold and sickness” and especially “solitude”. After months of living almost unconsciously, Chi was awake and constantly in thoughts and emotions. Thus, with the return of reason and awareness of himself, along with the feelings and emotions of a human being, Chi is fully awakening in both awareness and consciousness and begins to revive to back to human life.
Nam Cao’s pen here is warm, showing every expression of the awakening in Chi Pheo. He really loves genuine workers. Because of their circuTaxances, they were pushed into the path of sin. But even when life distorts the humanoid and distorts humanity, Nam Cam still sees the pure beauty that is always hidden in them. They just need to meet favorable conditions, the human part will rise up strongly.
At that moment, Thi No brought Chi Pheo a bowl of steaming onion porridge. And if Thi No hadn’t passed, he would probably have cried. This action of hers made him go from “extremely surprised” to emotional “to feel his eyes are wet” because of a very simple reason “for the first time he was given to …”, “his life has never been. now being cared for by a woman’s hands.” He also felt the taste of onion porridge, it was very fragrant and delicious. Thi No also felt that he was very gentle. Under the light of love, Thi No suddenly became a woman. a woman with grace, also knows how to glare, know how to be shy, know how to “shy but like when hearing the two words “husband and wife”. Thi No’s bowl of onion porridge made him think a lot. Chi Pheo’s heart that seemed like a stone has gradually come to life. The human part of him also revived. Chi lived true to his true self, returning to his original form in the old days. That act of caring, full of love, made Chi’s mood go from emotion to repentance and recovery. Thi No’s love paved the way for Chi Pheo to become a human again: “Oh my god! He wanted to be honest, how he wanted to make peace with everyone.
“Thi can live peacefully with him, why can’t others?” Along with the desire to be an honest person, Chi longs for happiness and a family home. And he said, “If only it were like this, wouldn’t it?”. At this time, Chi’s inner self had awakened, his conscience had awakened and stimulated his feelings. He really wants “this” that is to eat onion porridge, to live next to Thi No, to be cared for, cared for, loved by her, and to be coddled with her… I have a home for fun” a happy, happy family home, this sentence is like a marriage proposal of Chi to Thi No – a very neat, simple, and simple marriage proposal. He wanted to live like a true human being, longing to return to a normal life, to be reconciled with everyone. Thi No will be the bridge between him and life. Chi Pheo was wistful, eager to think of a good future. It was Thi No’s humanity that awakened and revived humanity in Chi Pheo, so I know how wonderful the emotional power of love is! Discovering and describing the awakening process of Chi Pheo is a unique artistic achievement of Nam Cao. The author has cleverly chosen the details that are very realistic, depicting the character’s psychology sharply, so the meaning of the revival is the affirmation of the vitality of Thien Luong, of honesty.
But, tragically and painfully, the door of life that had just been opened was immediately closed in front of Chi Pheo’s eyes, in the end, even a little love of Thi No was not strong enough to save him. Aunt Thi No’s words were like a bucket of cold water thrown straight into Chi Pheo’s face, extinguishing the fire that had just been kindled in Chi. “Who would head to marry a fatherless boy like Chi Pheo” has become a harsh prejudice that blocks Chi’s way back. Like every other Vu Dai villager, she was used to seeing Chi as a delinquent, moreover a demon. Then Thi No, the woman in whom he put all his hope, listened to her aunt, also “lifted her great lips and threw many curses at him”.
Thus, Chi Pheo really fell into a painful mental tragedy. That is the tragedy of a person who died on the threshold of returning to an honest life. The little bit of happiness, the wish to return to an honest life, did not come to Chi Pheo in the end. And it is harsh, when Chi Pheo’s human nature arose, it was also when Chi Pheo understood that she could no longer return to honesty. Social prejudice through the aunt and uncle No let him set foot on the bridge of hope. Further speaking, that semi-feudal colonial society has robbed Chi Chi of being a human and will never return it. It destroyed and broke the bridge connecting Chi with life.
Chi Pheo was once again snubbed and cruelly abandoned. Chi Pheo drank alcohol in despair, in extreme pain, “crying his face and crying”. Chi Pheo drank really hard, but this time was not like usual, the more drunk Chi became, the more awake he became, the more he realized the tragedy of his life. Resentful and desperate, Chi took a knife to go to Thi No’s house. In his intention, Chi was about to go home and stab his “old slut” and “whore” to death, but the awakening of his sense of identity and tragedy pushed Chi’s direction astray and led him to Ba Kien’s house. More than anyone at this moment, Chi understands the crime of the person who has robbed him of his human rights that: the one who made him disguise himself as a demon, the one who made him this miserable is Ba Kien. The more he understood the crime of the man who robbed him of his right to be a human, robbed his face and soul.
Chi Pheo came to Ba Kien’s house as an awakened slave, demanding the right to be a human. The most pitiful is Chi Pheo’s cry at the end of the work: “I want to be an honest person! Who gave me an honest person? How can I get rid of these calluses on my face? I can’t be an honest person anymore! You know! There’s only one way… you know!” Those are questions that soar bitterly and unanswered. The question contains the resentful pain of a person who understands the immense pain of personal tragedy. The question hits the face of a dishonest society. The question seems to cut the reader’s heart about a bitter human condition in the old society. The hatred is high and there is no way out.
Chi Pheo killed Ba Kien and then committed suicide, taking the destruction of his life to solve the stalemate of fate. Chi died when the door of life was closed in front of him, preventing him from coming back. It is the awakening of the right to life, not accepting the life of a demon anymore, he wants to return to the salary that society does not give, because the intense desire to be human has been extinguished. The honesty in each person is the spiritual heritage of each person. Why go for charity? Ah, so Chi was robbed by that inhuman society. Woe to Chi, even the right to be a human being crushed by the cannibal society. Chi Pheo’s tragic death is a strong denunciation of an inhuman society, a semi-feudal colonial society. That death is the death of a human in the painful tragedy on the threshold of human life, a cry for help about human rights, and also the call of the writer: Save people! Let’s love people!
With the character Chi Pheo, Nam Cao posed the tragedy of the peasants before the revolution: it was the tragedy that people were born human but could not be human. This shows Nam Cao’s deep sympathy with the honest aspiration in people and the stalemate of those aspirations in that social reality. The work has a profound philosophical meaning expressed in a very unique art form. The author has cleverly selected very realistic details, described the psychology of the character, built a typical character in a typical situation, plus a plot with attractive details and unexpected changes.
In the work of Chi Pheo, through the process of awakening and revival and the tragedy of being denied human rights of the main character, the writer has brought about beautiful human values. The work condemned and denounced the crimes of the semi-feudal colonial regime that oppressed and exploited the working people. Thereby the writer sympathizes with the sufferings, torments and stalemate of the aspirations of the peasants. At the same time, the writer also promptly discovered and appreciated the character’s spiritual beauty and aspired to change reality to bring a better life.
Chi Pheo – a tragedy of a poor farmer alienated in the old society, a typical person. The nature of Chi Pheo is an honest person, always aspires to live like a normal person, wants to live honestly but was turned into the devil of Vu Dai village by society at that time. This tragedy began to play out in Chi Pheo’s mind when he met Thi No with a “bowl of onion porridge”. It was the love of Chi Pheo – Thi No that awakened his honest person. In other words, it was Thi’s appearance that saved Chi Pheo from that tragedy, even for a moment.
Chi Pheo is Nam Cao’s masterpiece. On the basis of real people and real events in his hometown, the author has fictionalized and created a vivid realistic picture of Vietnamese rural society before the August Revolution with all the darkness, suffocation, and all the darkness. many painful, horrifying tragedies… Whether it is named Old Brick Kiln, Matching Couple or Chi Pheo, that work is still recognized by its immense realism and humanitarian value.
The main character Chi Pheo is a typical representative of the tragedy of the alienated peasants in the old society. But the plight and tragedy in that society could not make miserable villagers like Chi Pheo lose their desire to live well and honestly. There is always a strong resistance in their people.
A little bit about Chi Pheo, we can see that he is an abandoned child, born in an old brick kiln, raised by the love and generosity of the poor. When he grew up working as a field soup in Ba Kien’s house, his third wife Ba Kien called him to “squeeze his feet”; Ba Kien was jealous, so he was sent to prison. Later, Chi Pheo became “the devil of Vu Dai village” who acted like a good monster. Chi Pheo was in a drunken stupor, only once was he really awake one morning (was awakened by Thi No). But then the love was broken. Deadlocked, in search of honesty, he killed Ba Kien and then killed himself. Chi Pheo died but the story was not over. Thi No “takes a quick look at her belly” and “and glimpses the old brick kiln”, a “Chi Pheo baby” is about to be born. The arrangement is quite delicate and unique, every time Chi Pheo comes up, it is pressed down by this life, making the reader have to follow it continuously and can’t leave it.
Or for Nam Cao when he built an excellent psychological development of the character. We can see it most easily in the part where Chi Pheo opened his eyes and it was already morning… Once he woke up. The colors of life “the sun must be high”, “the chirping birds” reappeared even though he was in the damp tent. The first time he woke up, and also the first time he had a vibration before life. He heard “the laughter of market-goers”, “heard the sound of fishing boats knocking their oars to chase fish”.
Then the old memories came back. Once he wished for “a small family. The husband hires a hoe to plow, the wife weaves cloths… even though it’s only vague. Since then, he has felt lonely. The psychological development of a demon is moving towards kindness.
In the short story Chi Pheo, the process of being denied human rights actually started a long time ago, taking place simultaneously with the process of alienation. The curse right from the beginning of the work showed that. Chi raised his voice to curse heaven, curse life, curse the village, everyone – those who did not curse back, even those who gave birth to him. That curse was like a song to be freed, aimlessly, dumbfounded by a drunk. Yet it is so abstract but concrete, far and near, ordered and extremely poetic. The curse is the desire to communicate with life even the most lowly form of communication. But it got no response from anyone. But it wasn’t until she met Thi No, that is, when Chi Pheo woke up, that the tragedy really began. Chi Pheo was surprised and touched when Thi No brought a bowl of onion porridge to Chi Pheo. The taste of onion porridge is the taste of sincere love, simple but big happiness.
Then in a row, Chi Pheo all felt a little bit of onion porridge in his nose. The first time was when Thi refused, he thought for a bit, then seemed to understand, understand that he had too many sins, froze to wonder how to return to being a normal person? The second time was the time when he decided to act, he drank a lot of wine, but the more he drank, the more awake he became, when he woke up, he was sad, at that time the onion porridge appeared again, that was the symbolic meaning, he thought of Thi. , wondering between being a human and a demon, that is the honest dream, to be a human like everyone else. Then when it was time to meet Ba Kien, those actions were Chi Pheo’s last human posture before death.
A provincial Chi Pheo killed a drunk Chi Pheo. Chi Pheo is dead in flesh and bones, but what remains in the reader’s heart is Chi Pheo claiming the right to life, boldly demanding to be an honest person. Thus, when the sense of dignity returned, Chi Pheo was not content to live as before. And Chi Pheo died in painful tragedy, dying on the threshold of returning to life. This cannot be a delinquent act but a desperate rise of the farmer when he wakes up to life. Bearing a very high denunciation value, condemning the corrupt ruling feudal class, such tragedies will continue…
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