The child has Down syndrome and does not understand what she is saying
A girl named Lien has Down syndrome with integrated hearing impairment in the MGN class of Kindergarten B. She can only speak a few simple sentences. Teachers make requests, children often follow slowly and do not meet their requirements. The teacher repeated many times that the child still did it wrong. In class, children behave very poorly with teachers and classmates. No one in class played with Lien. First, teachers think that stubborn children do not want to follow others’ ideas but only like to do their own. Once when the child did not comply with her request, the teacher scolded the child. Lien looked at her teacher, she didn’t understand what she was saying, but she knew from her face that the teacher was angry. Lien hugged her face and cried, then the teacher thought: Why is Lien crying? Am I stubborn or do I not hear what I say?
With children down, the child’s motor ability is less than normal. So when the teacher gives the child a request to do it slowly, it is normal. Even the teacher repeated the request for the child to do it many times but the child still did it wrong. The teacher saw that the child’s behavior with people around him was poor and often did not follow her request, so he thought that this child down was very stubborn and only did what he wanted. However, when the teacher got angry, Lien cried. Since then, the teacher has thought: “Is it because you are stubborn and just like to do what you like or because you have difficulty hearing?
Lien behaves with her and her friends less than her peers because Lien doesn’t understand what people say, what to do. Lien had difficulty understanding the other person’s wishes and expressing her needs to her and her friends, so there was a misunderstanding. Teachers need to coordinate with parents to send children away due to hearing loss to take appropriate measures to help children. Here are a few suggestions:
- If your child has a hearing loss, you should buy a hearing aid according to the recommendation of a specialist
- Teach children to use spoken language to communicate by providing more vocabulary for children
- Teach children to use sign language combined with gestures to communicate when they have difficulty using spoken language in communication.
- In class, teachers should use short sentences combined with gestures or illustrations when communicating with children.
- Reduce the compression noise in the classroom by carpeting, hanging curtains, and at the same time, when speaking, the teacher pays attention to the shape of the mouth to observe the pronunciation.
Children say climbing, swearing
4-year-old Lan is studying in kindergarten. In class, Lan often talks about leo. The teacher did not ask me what I said, sometimes even using profanity to affect the class. As a teacher, what should you do to help Lan?
First, the teacher needs to find out the cause of Lan’s behavior and then come up with an appropriate solution:
- Baby Lan’s behavior mentioned above may be because she said leo or the teacher did not allow her to speak, the teacher followed the following suggestions:
- When you see that Lan is about to have a free expression, the teacher should show her displeasure with gestures, gestures, and facial expressions.
- Always praise children who raise their hands to speak; for Lan to learn from
- Use the picture “Children raise their hands to speak” hanging on the class board to remind Lan and the whole class to always perform the right behavior.
- When Lan speaks freely, the teacher should ask Lan to sit down and then let her raise her hand and speak again. After each time, the teacher should encourage and praise Lan so that she understands that it is the right behavior
- Timely commendation when Lan knows how to raise her hand to speak.
- In the case of Lan’s profanity, the teacher can follow the following suggestions:
- The first times should remind and express dissatisfaction with that behavior of Lan.
- If that behavior does not decrease after each time Lan swears, Lan can be punished by: Take away a prize that Lan loves; Remove Lan from the classroom for a short period of time; Discuss with Lan’s family to jointly educate that behavior; Forcing Lan to do an activity that she doesn’t like: drawing, modeling, storing toys..; Use an object or action that Lan is afraid of to scare Lan after each time Lan uses profanity.
Children with glaucoma
A 9-year-old boy named B has poor vision due to glaucoma. I also have a moderate intellectual disability. He can read some simple sentences on familiar topics. I am afraid to interact with people around me. I will answer if anyone asks, I rarely take the initiative to talk to anyone. He can do self-service such as shoveling his own food, fetching his own water, going to the toilet, etc. However, in class, sometimes he falls; bump into friends or furniture. B walks and moves, always looking for a place to hold/hold his hand. When they need to look closely at something, children often squint and rub their eyes. When I practice writing or drawing, I bend down to the table. In addition, she explores objects and toys in class not only by raising them close to her eyes but also by touching them very carefully (exploring by touch),….As a teacher, how do you handle them?
For children with lower vision, teachers should:
- Approach gently, use affection to talk and care for children.
- The teacher’s request should be clear and concise; repeated many times for children to understand because children have poor vision with intellectual disabilities.
- If the child is confused and does not know how to respond, the teacher should clearly show that he is talking and suggest the answer to the child.
- Increase the time for children to do activities;
- Make sure there is enough light in the classroom
- Use contrasting colors in activities and use of visual aids: glasses, markers; line marker..…to help children learn more easily
- Increase font size, clear images to make it easier for children to read
- Let children use touch and smell; taste, hearing (besides sight) more often than other sighted friends to help visually impaired children perceive things more fully.
- Mobilize; Encourage children to help them become more confident in communication
- Create a safe environment for children with “friendships” to help them learn;
- Create opportunities for children to have concrete experiences, to let them apply experiences through similar situations, from which they accumulate and understand things; The phenomena taking place around them gradually help children learn knowledge that they cannot see.
Children only eat vegetables, do not eat meat
In kindergarten class B1, school X has a child Lam with autism who only eats vegetable soup with rice but does not like to eat meat. As Lam’s teacher, what do you need to do to make Lam eat meat?
Before the above situation, the teacher found out the reason and learned that sometimes at home, her parents still forced Lam to eat meat. However, children only eat meat alone, not mixed with rice or other foods. Then she scooped some meat into Lam’s bowl (let him eat first). She quizzed the children if they could eat all the meat in their bowl, they would be praised by her and her friends. Lam tried to eat all the meat in the bowl to get compliments. Then the teacher let the children eat rice and vegetables. Another meal, she gave the child meat mixed with a small spoon of rice and asked the child to eat it all. Each time, the child tries to eat to be praised by her and her friends. Gradually, the amount of rice she mixed with meat in the bowl for Lam was equal to that of other friends and then Lam could eat rice with meat and vegetables as usual..
Children pretend to not have to go to school
At the beginning of the school year, Ms. Lan’s kindergarten class had a child named Hai with a slight intellectual disability. Every day, on the way her mother took Hai from home to class, she still laughed and talked all along the way. When I got to the classroom door, my mother handed me over to the teacher to pick up the child. Hai started coughing and possibly even vomiting. Then Hai complained of a headache and cried. When the teacher saw this, she told her mother to let her leave school so that she could go home and rest for a few days; When Hai is healthy, he will continue studying. And each time, Hai’s mother let her son stay at home for 2 to 3 days, then took him to class. And then, it happened again…. As a teacher, how should you handle it?
This is not the first time Hai has acted like this. Hai is afraid to go to school; I just want to play at home. When my mother took Hai from home to school, I was still happy. Hai realized that it was only when he showed such behavior that he got what he wanted – he didn’t have to be in class and his mother would take him home.
If the reason is that Hai does not want to go to school, teachers need to coordinate with parents to agree on a solution:
- Problem Hai stayed in class when he showed the above behavior. Teachers continue with their daily tasks.
- Teachers create opportunities for children to participate in playing games that children like with friends.
- Make children feel safe and happy to go to school.
- Remind parents to encourage Hai and tell interesting stories about how fun going to school is, and how friends will gradually arouse the child’s interest in going to school.
Children do not participate in class activities and always chew
In Miss Hoa’s kindergarten class, there is an autistic child named Long. Long goes to class but doesn’t want to participate in any of the activities that take place in class. Children just like to sit in the corner of the classroom where there is a dark place and always chew even though the teacher checked that there is nothing in the child’s mouth. The teacher in that class has no way to let the child participate in the class activities. When the teacher forced Long to only participate in the job, then he returned to an inactive state. As a teacher, what do you need to do to help Long improve his current situation?
- The first problem: Long is a child with autism who always refuses to communicate; Poor ability to interact with people around. The main problem is that teachers need to find out what toys children like to play the most? What is the child’s favorite food? What teacher or friend does the child like?
For Long, if teachers use ABA or TEACCH methods to intervene, it will not be highly effective, but it is necessary to apply the intervention/teaching method at the “Floor time” floor, which will be more effective.
Teachers can rely on the following suggestions to care for Long children:
- Observe the child to determine the child’s emotional state;
- Adults sit with children, approach children through play and interaction such as: imitating the actions children show; play games that children like;
- Interact with children according to the child’s lead, but the teacher still plays the role of helping and encouraging children to play
- Expand the game through comments; encourage and encourage children to play, ask them what they like;
- When the children answer, the teacher should not interrupt but create a happy psychology to enhance the interaction between the child and the teacher through the following activity suggestions: Turn on the light in the corner where the child is sitting. Using a spiked ball, a soft-bristled brush gently rubs the child’s palm; Let the child hold a cold object (ice) to stimulate the child to be more alert and focused; Gently massage/massage the baby; Have the child sit or lie down on a large ball with a diameter of 80cm; Let the children jump on the spring mattress; Teacher changes voice: sometimes loud, sometimes small,…
- The second problem: Does the child always chew even though there is nothing in his mouth? Teachers should:
Put ice around the child’s lips or give the child cold water to drink, if it is cold, the child will stop chewing; Or let your child chew gum;
The above suggestions if done daily, the child’s behavior will gradually decrease.
6-year-old Hieu is currently studying in a large kindergarten class. In the process of sitting and studying, the baby always wiggles his limbs and is never still. During playtime, sometimes Hieu climbed onto the table and chair, sometimes walked around the class, sometimes even ran to another class. As a teacher, how would you handle this situation?
Hieu’s above behavior is also a typical manifestation of hyperactive children. The cause of this behavior may be because the classroom environment is too stressful for Hieu or simply a feature of ADHD. Teachers can follow these suggestions:
- Should create opportunities for Hieu to be mobilized. For example, when asking the child to help her prepare teaching materials. During class, sometimes call children to stand up to speak or make a request to fight for Hieu to sit in one place for too long.
- Should alternate between static activities with activities for Hieu to do
- Every day, Hieu should have time to be active in the sports areas so that the children can “let off steam” such as scalding pools, slides; swing
- Advise parents to make multi-pocket waistcoats (bags containing sand/bean) that are heavier than normal shirts for Hieu to wear.
- Let Hieu sit on a chair with air cushion or water bag so that Hieu can feel that he is still active. If there is no air mattress or water bag, the teacher can stretch a few times of rubber bands at the foot of the chair so that Hieu can study while shaking his legs on those ropes to help Hieu sit still and concentrate. into the lesson better.
Children torturing themselves
5-year-old Lam, who is currently studying in kindergarten, has been diagnosed with autism by a doctor. When going to class, Lam doesn’t play with anyone, just wanders alone. Sometimes Lam often pushes you to fall and then stand and watch. The classmates all avoided when Lam approached. When being punished by the teacher, Lam often shows signs of self-harm by biting his own hand. As Lam’s teacher, what do you need to do?
First, teachers need to find out the cause and then come up with an appropriate solution.
- If the primary cause of behavior is sensory disturbance, teachers should:
- Talk to Lam’s family so that they can know and take measures to intervene.
- Lam should not be angry or scolded, but should separate Lam from the class so that he can calm down and then let him return to the classroom to apologize to his friend who was beaten.
- Should give Lam more time to practice exercises related to vestibular system, joint and muscle development; Tactile training to help reduce Lam’s abnormal behaviors. This is how to manage children’s behavior through a multi-sensory approach.
- If the child pushes you down because he likes to see you fall, the teacher should have a calm attitude and tell the child why he is being punished. Teachers can use causality to let Lam know how it feels to be pushed by others. However, this measure can only be taken after the permission of the parents, the administration and a safe classroom environment. In addition, teachers should coordinate with parents to discuss behavior management measures at school and at home, thereby finding useful measures, and also let children know that not all of their interests are in school. Children are also allowed by teachers and parents.
The child has a seizure during the hour
During the physical education class in the kindergarten, she taught the children the long throw exercise, period 2. In the warm-up, she let the children make a train going to the station. The teacher is letting the children practice the dynamic part of the general development exercise in the movement of jumping in place 3 to 4 times (not yet reaching the basic movement: long throw). Suddenly a child has a seizure: the child falls to the ground, the muscles contract for about 10 to 20 seconds, the whole body convulsions afterwards, The child’s mouth is distorted, foaming at the mouth, eyes roll back, face pale, confusion defecation, …. In that case, what do you need to do?
In the above situation, if the teacher continues to let the children in the class perform basic movements: long throw, movement game and then calm down, it may not be possible to ensure the physical safety of the injured child. have a seizure. Because if the child has a convulsion, vomits and lies on his back, the liquid flowing out of the mouth will choke, make it difficult to breathe, and even cause suffocation. Teachers need to avoid unfortunate cases because epilepsy can lead to coma, severe cases can lead to death. Another reason is during convulsions; There are children biting their tongues with bloody mouths that are dangerous to their lives if they are not promptly stopped and treated
- Therefore, if you are a kindergarten teacher, when a child has such a total seizure, stop the class and immediately run to the place where the child fell, and how to ensure the safety of the child. All for children. The teacher can place one hand or use a pillow under the child’s head. Put the child in a side-lying position to prevent the child from vomiting, acrid, sputum that easily flows out of the mouth, to avoid choking. Teachers can easily pick up saliva and vomit when the child has a prolonged convulsion. Next, the teacher needs to remove the scarf around the neck; collar buttons (if any) at the same time loosening clothes to make it easier for children to breathe…
- For children with epilepsy, teachers need to coordinate with the family to send the child to a specialist so that the doctor can closely monitor, take the medicine fully and strictly according to the doctor’s prescription.
Here are some suggestions for teachers on how to deal with a child having a seizure
- Place the child in a supine position so that the tongue does not clog the throat and saliva can flow out of the mouth. The blood from biting the tongue will stop bleeding quickly
- Wait until your child realizes what’s going on, then place him or her on the bed to wipe off any loose phlegm, scrapes, and clean bandages, and change clothes or diapers if soiled.
- Take the child to the hospital immediately.
- Teachers must ensure the safety of children with epilepsy: Classrooms must be arranged neatly and simply to prevent children having seizures from falling; Corners must be covered and shielded, avoiding easy to fall and breakable objects; Do not allow children to climb ladders and heights; Do not allow children to go near the fire, avoid letting them look at flashing lights because they may have a seizure. Children are not allowed to go to school by themselves; go out, take a bath or go to the toilet alone. If the child has a high frequency of seizures, they need a helmet to protect their head when traveling and must be accompanied. Make a card for your child with a strap or clip to a pocket.
Children with mobility difficulties
In Ms. Hien’s class, there is a child named Long who has difficulty in integrating kinesiology. She has paralysis of her glutes, thighs, and shoulder muscles, which makes her limited in movement in movements controlled by those muscles. gradually cause deformity and contracture of the joint. I move in a wheelchair. My intelligence is normal. During the physical education classes, Ms. Hien was really confused because she didn’t know how to get the children involved.
Young Long with polio has many difficulties in movement. I move in a wheelchair. Teachers need to make flexible adjustments when organizing physical education activities for children in the class. Depending on the topic, topic and content of each lesson, teachers adjust the objectives, adjust the content and adjust the methods so that children can participate in the lesson at different levels.
- In all activities, teachers need to let children practice so that the muscles are not stiff with different movements. Teachers can use assistive devices to help children participate in activities more easily: leg braces, walkers, special chairs…
- Teachers should organize a group of friends to help you to help Long when needed.
- Teachers discuss with family and colleagues to get health information; children’s motor skills and self-help skills. Thereby, teachers guide and persistently help children practice new movements.
- Regular encouragement; Encourage children to participate in group activities. For example: With jumping rope or tug of war, the teacher can let the child in a wheelchair be the leader. With overhead passing, the teacher can put the child in a wheelchair at the end of the row so that the child only has to receive the ball one way. However, the teacher needs to choose a friend to stand in front of a child with a lower height so that when Long is in a wheelchair, he can receive the ball from his friend in front of him and pass it easily without having to lean up to catch the ball. At the same time; You need to be agile and skillful when passing the ball to Long. With gross motor development exercises, teachers can replace activities: let children sit on the floor and perform hand movements such as rolling the ball on the floor, throwing the ball forward. With activities aimed at developing fine motor: kneading; rolling clay; stringing beads, using scissors, stealing crabs, markings/graphs; stacking objects…. Teachers can have children sit on the table/floor to do activities beside friends in your group to help you.