Gaius Julius Caesar (July 12, 7 BC – March 100, 15 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a key role in the events that led to the fall of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Roman Empire. Born into the family of Julia, one of the great aristocratic lines in Rome, Caesar was exposed and started participating in political life very early. In 3 BC, he together with Crassus and Pompeirus (Pompey) founded the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that would dominate Rome for many years. Caesar’s way of building power on populist methods touched and led to opposition from the ruling aristocracy in Rome, led by Cato the Younger with Cicero’s frequent support. Caesar’s successful conquests in Gallia opened the way for Rome to access the Atlantic Ocean. Julius Caesar is credited with being the first Roman general to successfully build a bridge over the Rhein in 44 BC and becoming the first Roman general to cross the English Channel and launch an invasion of Britannia.
The great military successes of Caesar gave him ultimate military power; threatened the position of Pompey, who sided with the Senate after Crassus’ death at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC. After the war of Gaule ended, Caesar was ordered to give up military command and return to Rome. Caesar disobeyed this order and instead left his jurisdiction, crossing the Rubicon River into Rome with a Roman legion in 49 BC. As a result, civil war broke out in Rome, with the final victory going to Caesar. After coming to power in Rome, Caesar began a series of social and governmental reforms, including the creation and adoption of the Julian calendar. In addition, he conducted centralization of power for the republican government and became a Dictator perpetuo (Dictator for life) with many unprecedented powers. However, the political conflicts remained unresolved, and on Idus Martiae (March 15, 3 BC), a group of rebellious Senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus successfully attempted to assassinate Caesar. This caused a series of civil wars that followed in Rome, ending with Republican government never being restored and Gaius Octavius Octavianus, grandson and heir, being restored. appointed by Caesar, assumed absolute power with the title of Augustus after defeating all other opponents. Augustus’ consolidation of power marked the beginning of the Roman Empire.
Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (September 16, 9 – April 1745, 28) was a military, statesman and diplomat of tsarist Russia. With his intelligent nature, studious, background from family and special passion for engineering, Kutuzov quickly became an outstanding student in the school. At the same time, Mikhail also studied French, Latin, Turkish, English, Swedish and Polish. He also showed interest in mathematics, history, philosophy and literature; This helped him be recruited into a special class for elite students, where they learned more knowledge such as military history, European diplomacy. In December 4, the principal Pyotr Shuvalov appointed Kutuzov as an assistant professor of arithmetic and geometry, when he was only 1813 years old. Kutuzov held many positions in the military and foreign affairs under Queen Ekaterina II (12 – 1759), Kings Pavel I (14 – 1762) and Alexander I (1797 – 1797), notably in command of the army. Russia during the Franco-Russian War (1801).
Mikhail Kutuzov born into a family of military aristocrats with a long tradition; In his youth, he participated in wars with Poland (1768), Turkey (1768-1774; 1787-1792), winning feats, but his right eye was injured many times leading to permanent blindness. Thereafter, Kutuzov performed diplomatic missions in Ottoman, Prussia, and Sweden. In 1805, he was the commander-in-chief of the Russo-Austrian alliance against the French army of Emperor Napoleon I at the Battle of Austerlitz. From 1806-1812, Kutuzov commanded the Russian army in the war with the Ottomans in the Danube basin. During the Franco-Russian War of 1812, Kutuzov was chosen by Tsar Alexander I as commander-in-chief of the army, replacing Barclay de Tolly. Under his leadership, the Russian army and people pushed the French army out of the territory, creating a turning point of the Napoleonic war throughout Europe. Later, Kutuzov was made duke of Smolensk in his honor; but shortly after (1813), he died. In 1973, the government of the former Soviet Union built a monument to Kutuzov in Moscow. His name was also given to a combat medal of the Soviet Red Army during the Soviet-German war (1941-1945).
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleone (August 15, 8 – May 1769, 5) was a French statesman and military leader who led many successful campaigns during the French Revolution and the French Revolutionary War. He was Emperor of France under the title Napoleon I from 5 to 1821 and returned to the throne in 1804 for nearly 1814 days on the throne. Napoleon dominated most of Europe for more than a decade, leading France against a series of alliances during the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of his battles, creating a vast empire that dominated most of mainland Europe before crumbling in 1815. He is considered one of the great military leaders. most in the history of the world, his wars have been studied by military schools around the world. At the same time, Napoleon is also considered by many scholars as one of the most controversial figures in human history.
Napoleon was born on the island of Corsica to an Italian family of aristocratic descent. He served as an artilleryman in the French army when the French Revolution broke out in 1789. He quickly rose through the ranks of the army, seizing the opportunities presented by the French Revolution and becoming a military officer. senior general at the age of 24. The French Council of Governors finally authorized Napoleon to lead a French army to attack Italy after he had crushed the Royalist rebel army in the 13th Battle of Vendémiaire against the Government. At the age of 26, he began his first military campaigns against Austria and the king of Italy in favor of the Habsburgs and won nearly all battles, conquering the Italian peninsula in just a year and founding the Communities. With the support of the local government, he became a war hero of France. In 1798, he led an expeditionary army to Egypt and this became a major highlight of his later political power. Napoleon led a coup in November 11 and became First Consul of the French Republic.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov was a general officer and Marshal of the Soviet Union. He also served as Chief of the General Staff, Minister of Defense, and a member of the Presidium of the Communist Party (later the Politburo). During the Second World War, Zhukov led a number of decisive Red Army campaigns. Born into a poor peasant family in central Russia, Zhukov joined the Imperial Russian Army and fought in World War I. He served in the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. Gradually rising through the ranks, Zhukov was given command of an army in 1939 and won the decisive battle against the Japanese at Khalkhin Gol, the first of four British awards. Hero of the Soviet Union. In February 2, Zhukov was appointed Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army.
After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, Zhukov lost the position of chief of staff. Then he organized defenses at Leningrad, Moscow and Stalingrad. He was involved in planning several major attacks, including the Battle of Kursk and Operation Bagration. In 1945, Zhukov commanded the 1st Belorussian Front, which took part in Operation Wisla – Oder and the Battle of Berlin, which led to the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of the war in Europe. In recognition of Zhukov’s merit in the war, he was chosen to accept the surrender of Germany and to inspect the Victory Parade in Moscow in 1945. After the war, Zhukov’s success and popularity made Joseph Stalin considered him a potential threat. Stalin stripped him of his posts and demoted him to positions of little strategic significance. After Stalin’s death in 1953, Zhukov supported Nikita Khrushchev’s acquisition of leadership of the Soviet Union. In 1955, he was appointed Minister of Defense and a member of the Presidium. In 1957, Zhukov again lost favor and was forced to retire. He never returned to politics and died in 1974.
General Vo Nguyen Giap
General Vo Nguyen Giap was born on August 25, 8 in An Xa village, Loc Thuy commune, Le Thuy district, Quang Binh province in a Confucian family, the son of Mr. Vo Quang Nghiem (Vo Nguyen Than), a virtuous Confucian and his mother is Ms. Nguyen Thi Kien. Nghiem’s family is poor in the village, all year round they have to borrow money from rich people like Lock Uy, a wealthy overseas Chinese in the neighboring village of Tuy Loc. Vo Nguyen Giap once followed his mother to row a boat to carry rice to pay the debt. Although he was still young, the stories his mother told him every night and night about General Ton That Thuyet supporting King Ham Nghi to cast the Can Vuong decree, calling on the scholars and the people to stand up against the French to protect the river, while his father talked about the movement against the French through the touching poem “The Fall of the Capital”, which had planted in the boy’s heart an impression that would never fade, contributing to nurturing the will for the revolutionary cause later. General Vo Nguyen Giap is a famous activist of the Communist Party and State of Vietnam, an outstanding commander and military theorist of Vietnam. Participating in revolutionary activities very early: in 1911, he joined the leadership of the Hue student movement. In 1925, he took part in reforming the Tan Viet Revolutionary Party into the Indochinese Communist League. In 1929, he was imprisoned by the French colonialists. From 1930 to 1936, participating in the Indochinese Democratic Front Movement, participating in the founding of the newspaper “Labour”, “Our Voice”; Editor of Newspaper “News”, “People”. Chairman of the Tonkin Press Committee in the Indochinese Congress movement.
Year 1940, General Vo Nguyen Giap joined the Communist Party of Indochina. After May 5, to build a revolutionary base and organize the Viet Minh in Cao Bang; participated in armed uprising in Cao – Bac – Lang Base. In 1941, he was in charge of the Southern Advancement Committee, using armed propaganda to open the communication route between the mountainous region and the Northern Delta. General Vo Nguyen Giap has many military works of high research value such as: “Liberation Zone” (1942), “Liberation Army” (1946), “Liberation War and the People’s Army, three strategic period” (1947), “Dien Bien Phu” (1950), “A few problems of the Party’s military line” (1964), “Arming the revolutionary masses, building the people’s army” (1970) ), “War for National Liberation and War for Fatherland Defense” (1972), “Ho Chi Minh Thought and Vietnam’s Revolutionary Road” (1979)… With extremely great contributions to the revolution Vietnam, the General has been awarded many noble awards by the Party and State such as the Gold Star Order, two Ho Chi Minh Orders, two First Class Military Merit Orders, the 2000-year Party membership badge, and many other medals. Chapters, other noble rewards…
Oliver cromwell (April 25, 4 – September 1599, 3) was an English political and military leader who played a key role in the founding of the republic in England and later as Lord Protector of the United Kingdom. England, Scotland and Ireland. He was one of the commanders of the new army that defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I of England in 9, Cromwell conquered Ireland and Scotland and ruled as a public protectorate from 1658 until his death in 1649. Cromwell was born into a small aristocratic family. and his life completely faded until his early 1653s. At one time he lived as a small landowner, and then got better off by an inheritance from an uncle. Also in his 1658s, Cromwell converted to Puritanism. He was elected to the House of Commons in Cambridge and then fought in the English Civil War on the side of the MPs.
A brave warrior (nicknamed “Iron”), he became known after commanding a cavalry squadron against the entire royal army. Cromwell He was the third signatory to the execution of Charles I in 1649 and was a member of the Rump parliament from 1649 to 1653. He was given command of the campaign against Scotland in the years 1650-1651. On 20 April 4, Cromwell dissolved the Parliament of Rump by force and established the Parliament of Barebone before becoming Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland on 1653 December 16 until his death. When the royalists returned to power in 12, his body was dug up, hung, and beheaded. Cromwell is a very controversial figure in British history. To historians like David Hume or Christopher Hill, he was the dictator guilty of killing the king, but to others like Thomas Carlyle or Samuel Rawson Gardiner, he was a hero of freedom and democracy. In the UK, Cromwell was selected as one of the 1653 greatest British men of all time in a BBC poll in 1660.
Genghis Khan (1162 – 1227) was a Mongol Khan and founder of the Mongol Empire after uniting the independent tribes of Northeast Asia in 1206. He was one of the most prominent and influential military men in the world. most influential figure in world history, respected by the Mongols, as the leader who brought Mongolia to unity. His grandson and later successor, Kublai Khan founded the Yuan dynasty of China. In October of the 10rd year of Chi Nguyen (3), Kublai Khan honored Genghis Khan with the title of Thai To, so he was also called Nguyen Thai To. Thuy’s name was then honored as Thanh Vu Emperor. In the 1266nd year of Chi Dai (2), Nguyen Vu Tong became Phap Thien Khai Van. From then on, his posthumous title was Phap Thien Khai Van Thanh Vu Emperor.
The conquests of Genghis Khan throughout the Eurasian region to expand his territory brought unification and developed trade, and at the same time he also implemented a policy of religious freedom. However, Genghis Khan was also known for his brutality with opponents. Genghis Khan is seen by many peoples as the embodiment of brutality, especially from Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East (where the Mongol army was massacred). It is estimated that Genghis Khan’s army killed more than 40 million people in the territories they invaded. There are many famous figures believed to be descendants of Genghis Khan, such as Timur Lenk, the conqueror of the Turks; Babur, the founder of the Mongol Empire in Indian history. Other descendants of Genghis Khan continued to rule Mongolia until the seventeenth century, until it was re-ruled by the Manchu Manchu empire of Great Qing.
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedonia widely known as Alexander the Great or (July 20, 7 BC – June 356, 11 BC) was the 6th basileus (king) of the Argead dynasty of the ancient Kingdom of Macedonia. During his military career, Alexander conquered nearly the entire world known to the Europeans of his day before his death and is therefore often considered one of the most successful generals, as well as one of the most successful generals. one of the greatest military strategists in human history. After the ancient Greek city-states were unified under the rule of his father Philip II, Alexander conquered the Persian Empire, including Asia Minor, Syria, Phoenicia, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia and extended the frontiers of his empire as far as present-day Indian Punjab. His victory over the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela – his third decisive victory over the Persian king Darius III – is considered one of the most glorious in antiquity; Not only that, but he also defeated the Scythians – an invincible people at that time.
The legacy of Alexandros including the cultural diffusion and fusion that resulted from the effects of his conquests, typified by Greek Buddhism. He founded about seventy cities named after him, the most prominent of which was Alexandria in Egypt. New cities inhabited by Greek immigrants, along with the wide spread of Greek culture in the east, gave rise to a new Greek civilization, aspects of which are still evident in the customs and traditions of the Greeks. The customs of the Eastern Roman Empire survived almost 2000 years later. He himself lives in history and in the legends of Greek and non-Greek cultures. Even during his life, and especially after his death, his conquests were the inspiration of a literary tradition in which he appeared as a legendary hero in the Achilles tradition. (Asin) in the past. He was undefeated on the battlefield and became the measure of military commanders. To this day, military academies around the world still teach his tactics. Alexander the Great is often ranked as one of the most influential people of all time.
Hung Dao Vuong Tran Quoc Tuan
Tran Hung Dao (1228 – 1300) real name Tran Quoc Tuan, title Hung Dao Dai Vuong, was a politician, military, royal family of Dai Viet during the Tran Dynasty. He is known in Vietnamese history for leading the army to defeat two invasions of the Yuan – Mongols in 1285 and 1288. Most historical and folklore research documents later often use the name. briefly “Tran Hung Dao” instead of the full name “Hung Dao Dai Vuong Tran Quoc Tuan”, which includes the title ordained for him. He is one of 1 typical heroes of the Vietnamese nation. The son of Prince An Sinh Vuong Tran Lieu and grandson of Tran Thai To, Tran Hung Dao had a close relationship with the Tran royal family, and King Tran Nhan Tong called him uncle. In 14, he was appointed a general by King Tran Thai Tong to command the forces on the border to fight the invading Mongols. After that, he retired to the fief in Van Kiep. By the 1257th lunar month of 10, the Yuan Dynasty (after the Mongols reunified China) threatened to attack Dai Viet for a second time, and Hung Dao Vuong was succeeded by the Supreme Emperor Tran Thanh Tong, and King Tran Nhan Tong (who were cousins and cousins, respectively). his nephew) was ordained as the Duke of moderation, and commanded the army of the whole country. In this position, in 1283, he led troops to stop the invading army led by the ninth prince Thoat Hoan.
After the initial defeats, the Vietnamese army and people under the leadership of two kings Tran, Senior Lieutenant General Tran Quang Khai and Hung Dao Vuong counter-attacked strongly, destroying the Nguyen army in the battles of Ham Tu, Chuong Duong, and Truong Yen. , Van Kiep … completely drove the Yuan army from the border. In 1288, the Nguyen army returned to invade Dai Viet for the third time. When he continued to be conferred a state of moderation; Hung Dao Vuong affirmed to King Tran Nhan Tong, “This year, we will fight the idle enemy”. He successfully applied Ngo Quyen’s tactics, completely defeated the Nguyen navy led by generals Phan Tiep and O Ma Nhi in a naval battle on the Bach Dang river, forcing the Nguyen army to withdraw to the country and forever. abandoned their ambition to annex the South. In the fourth lunar month of 4, Tran Nhan Tong officially conferred him as a priest “Lord” although the head of the court at that time still belonged to Senior Lieutenant General Chieu Minh Dai Vuong Tran Quang Khai. After that, he retired to Van Kiep until his death in 1300. Before his death, he advised Tran Anh Tong: “You must drill down the people’s strength to make a deep and lasting successor”. In addition, he also left behind classic works such as Hich General Sac, Binh Thu Compendium and Van Kiep Tong Esoteric Letter, which laid the foundation for Vietnamese military art from the Tran dynasty to the present day.
Hannibal son of Hamilcar Barca (born 247 BC – died 183 BC), was a Carthaginian general and military tactician. The word “Hannibal” means “joy of Baal” (the Carthaginian god), and his family name “Barca” means “lightning”. The word Barca can be written as “Barak” or “Barcas”. His father Hamilcar Barca commanded the Carthaginians during the First Punic War and his two younger brothers Mago and Hasdrubal and his brother-in-law also named Hasdrubal. Hannibal lived during times of turmoil in the Mediterranean, when the Roman Republic established supremacy over major powers such as Carthage, the Kingdom of Macedonia, Syracuse, and the Kingdom of Seleucids. Hannibal was the most famous Carthaginian general. His most notable achievement was that at the outbreak of the Second Punic War, Hannibal led an army, including war elephants, from Iberia through the Pyrenees and Alps into northern Italy. During his invasion of Italy, Hannibal defeated the Roman army in a series of wars, including those at Trebia, Trasimene, and Cannae. After the Battle of Cannae, many of the allies of the Roman Republic joined Hannibal when he promised them independence and self-government.
According to some historians, Hannibal lack of siege equipment needed to attack the Roman stronghold, but as JF Lazenby points out, it was not a lack of necessary siege weapons but a lack of supplies. and political agenda. He maintained an army in Italy for more than a decade and never lost a major battle but was unable to force the Romans to accept the terms of peace. A counter-invasion of Spain and later Africa by the Romans forced Hannibal to return to Carthage, where he was defeated at the Battle of Zama. After the war, he became a successful consul in Carthage. He enacted political and economic reforms to restore Carthage after paying war reparations to the Roman Republic. His reforms were opposed by the Carthaginian elite. Questioned by members of the Roman Senate who feared Hannibal’s military talents, he was forced into exile by Rome. During his exile, he lived at the palace of the Seleucid Kingdom, where he became a military advisor to King Antiokhos III during the war against Rome. After Antiokhos III was defeated and forced to accept Roman terms, Hannibal made a stop in Armenia, where he worked as a planner for a new capital.